ARCHAEOLOGICAL COMPLEX CHAVIN DE HUANTAR
The culture Chavín is expressed in an eloquent way in the architecture of the place of Chavín, traditionally qualified of Chavín of Huántar, although it is no longer located in the jurisdiction of the district of Huántar but in that of Chavín.
To give prestige to this archaeological place they contribute the many monoliths sculpted with supernatural beings' figures that you/they adorned the walls of Chavín in their majority.
The monuments of Chavín are located in the oriental skirts of the mountain range Blanca 3185 meters of altitude, in the triangle formed by Huachecsa and Mosna, rivers these that unite to pay their waters to Marañón.
The magnificence and majesty of Chavín is such that his construction was assigned to a "race of giant" and not to common men. It registers this mythical explanation Pedro Cieza of León (1553), when describing that that already in their time it was a "relic" abandoned by the man.
Chavín of Huántar was the most grandiose expression in the civilization Chavín arrived to its fullness. There we can appreciate today the remains of their temples, a group of buildings, terraces, platforms, squares, underground galleries, channels and columns that you/they testify what happened more than three thousand years ago in the place.
CHAVIN DE HUANTAR
CHAVIN DE HUANTAR
CHAVIN DE HUANTAR
Piazza and columns of the temple. Here taenia place the ascención to the summit that covered by means of a peculiar system of perrons.
Chavín is constituted by pyramidal diverse buildings, squares that settle on a hillside aterrazada, covers and perrons. The pyramidal constructions house a net of passages and interior cameras that you/they appear in some cases superimposed. As construction material the stone prevails, although in some sectors the walls were stuccoed with clay that was roasted to resist the embates of the time.
A particular note is conformed by the stones depicted on high with mythical figures and bajorelieve. In their majority these veneered walls and they decorated the buildings and one of the sunken squares. On the other hand, stones sculpted in form of heads of fierce expression went embedded in the high of the walls, placed halfway and in horizontal array.
One of it head-nails them that they decorate the walls of Chavín of Huántar. There is who they suppose that they can have been symbolic imitations of heads. Their face infuses respect, it combines anatomical human elements, of feline and of bird.
The constructions of Chavín were elaborated leaving of a nuclear structure made with mud and stones without working, in the one that previously had been programmed the spaces corresponding to what you/they should be corridors or interior passages. Walls and monolithic lintels freed these passages of the mass of mud and constituent stones of the construction. To the artificial, perforated hill that was built this way, he/she was given pyramidal inclination, the one that was interrupted by steps or "platforms." Finally the everything was had in their exterior with stony irons or spun exquisitely refined. The havoc of the erosion are perceptible in the less resistant stones, and he/she makes it that apparently today they shine some "imperfect" walls visible. It is of noticing that there was not lack of perfection in the construction of the bases of the external walls of "The Castle", since this sector shone originally covered or veneered by big stone blocks, of square tendency and that with running of the time they collapsed.
In the passages interior queen total and perpetual dimness unless for the sheafs of light that penetrate for the ducts or "vents" that communicate with the exterior and they constantly renovate the air. Maybe for these ducts the voices of the oracle were listened from Chavín to which early writers refer.
CHAVIN DE HUANTAR LABYRINTH
CHAVIN DE HUANTAR LABYRINTH
CHAVIN DE HUANTAR LABYRINTH
In a sector of the internal passages Lanzón, a monolith rises sculpted with mythical figures to be seen to the round one. The immense stone almost reaches 5 meters of high and it surprises the spectator with its supernatural representations that "infuse terror" like Antonio already expressed it Raimondi, to what perpetually sinks the location of the monolith in those dark galleries of Chavín.
Lanzón, is monolithic, of almost 5 m of height, it is in the call I "Temper Early." Their form probably mentioned to an eyetooth, the element more repeated emblemático in the beings represented in the art Chavín.
For that exposed, light and darkness, day and night, they were symbolic factors represented in the architecture of Chavín. And not only by means of their architectural spaces dedicated to the world exteriory to the interior or underground world, but also through the division in two halves that observe some perrons, as much as the cover of "The Castle": a dark one and the other white, and that the manufacturers highlighted using stones of construction of different tonality. The same iconography, captured in the many monoliths, seems to be governed by these symbolic poles if seconsidera that the supernatural represented beings exhibit attributes of prey birds and of felines that, for its nature, they are linked a day and at night and respectively to the male and lahembra.
Luz and darkness, day and night, they were symbolic factors represented in the architecture chavinense. Their perrons also expressed the division in two halves, as the cover of "The Castle"; a dark one and another white.
It is known that the different structures that Chavín conforms would correspond to historical diverse times for those that it crossed the place. This enunciated belongs to Julio C. Tello. Years later, in 1962, John H. Rowe deepened in the topic and supported in differences present tipológicas in the monoliths it proposed a secuenciade the architectural structures. He/she deduced that Chavín, just as it has arrived until us, it was built leaving of a primordial temple of modest bases: the Old" "Temple. With lapsing of the time, this structure would have supported diverse amplifications. In a later stage that estimates it was the third, he/she would have consolidated what describes as New" "Temple, from more and built proportions to the side, retaining part of the structure of the monument primigenio. Rowe bases its hypothesis aided in the presence of kind of a visible cracks in the walls and that it considers they are vestiges of points of union of the "additions."
However, the "cracks" that it is supposed would have been produced by the experienced amplifications starting from the Old" "Temple, they outline the suspicion that they not necessarily correspond to the impronta left by architectural successive amplifications. Indeed, when these are comparadascon other architectural Andean examples in those that show up also, it is verified that they are not another thing that you mark printed for the technical deconstruir based on modules, that is to say adding sectors laterally without it implies it chronological significant separation. On the other hand, the construction techniques between the Old" "Temple and the New" "Temple of Chavín don't present notorious variations. And, what turns out to be even more significant, neither the architectural same concepts and their symbolic implicit values. This way, it fits to outline the possibility that Chavín was conceived under an architectural single plan, and that its execution was carried out without a cultural neither chronological delay of consideration like to separate cultural stages.
ARCHITECTURE EVOCADORADE A FIGURE
On the exposed premise he/she settles the hypothesis that looks for to identify the silhouettes of a symbolic figure in the architectural group of Chavín that naturally should only copy to big lines some conspicuous figures of the iconography Chavín, simplifying their forms when having to adapt it to the architecture.
When proposing the author in 1983 this hypothesis, about the possibility that the architecture Chavín would be evoking an image zoomorfa and when being about correlating the diverse sectors with the supernatural being's anatomical parts Chavín that had served as inspiration, it finished arguing that until the decoration of the walls of Chavín, with its two spun trapped by two of more proportions, a below and another up, they could obey the will of figuring mouths stylized ad infinitum, for the fold that you/they accuse the lips for, in aggressive attitude, to leave the two arrays of the denture visible.
As it is known, the reason iconográfico Chavín is the striped mouth, represented with insistence so much desmesurada in monoliths and ceramic as in objects worked in diverse materials: sometimes isolated low treatment and/or in succession and others incorporating it as symbolic element in characters' figures.
The case of representing Chavín a figure, like we suppose, this possibility deserves more attention and study; we keep in mind that other examples exist in the architecture of old Peru of constructions with contained iconográfico unquestionable zoomorfo, as Paramonga and Hill Blanco in Nepeña. Also the architectural plan of The Skirts, monument previous to Chavín, seems to repeat the same figure, apparently basically of a bird. The city of same Cuzco would have figured the contours of a feline; maybe with bird head according to a patron old and very diffused Andean iconográfico.
THE MONOLITHS DE CHAVIN
The style Chavín is manifested in an eloquent way in the monolith associated to the architecture of Chavín (of Huántar). These veneered, in their majority, the walls of buildings.
The monoliths more spectacular Chavín is Estela Raimondi, the Shaft Tello, Lanzón and the Columns. To the mentioned examples of the lithic sculpture Chavín Estela of Yauya should be added, no matter how much I/you/he/she was not located in the place of Chavín. The figures represented in these monoliths observe accented grades of stylization and they are for logeneral difficult to identify. To it contributes it the one that you/they go sprinkled of a sinnúmero of incorporate figures that recharge the representation, darkening it. Also, and at first sight, the figures appear incomprehensible, because they represent beings with human attributes and mythical unknown extracted zoomorfos of stories. It has motivated it that they swarm the most diverse opinions as for that represented.
Estela Raimondi and an interpretive hypothesis of that figured in this monolith (FKD 1968). As he/she suggests it the drawing in that we are about presenting to the profile character, the trail Raimondi it would figure a supernatural being of human contours with striped mouth and atríbutos ornitomorfos varíos: claws in feet and hands, and probably wings with stylized plumage reduced in a single body when being represented of front and in lengthened space; they would go exposed, therefore, above the head, with the purpose of being able to be visualized.
This way, some professional archaeologists sustain that the figures in the monoliths of Chavín draw caymans, others come in them lobsters and about third spiders, etc. The isolated simple view, outside of the context Andean iconográfico of which is part Chavín, has contributed to that shows up this abundance of disparate interpretations. The comparative method in the study of the images Andean votivas allows to point out, in attention to similar beings represented with more clarity in later styles and heirs of Chavín that the represented divinity was that of a hybrid being: half man with striped mouth and half prey bird. Naturally that the proportions of the elements vary. To this supernatural being of the vault Chavín has qualified him, for the exposed reasons and from 1967, of piscoruna-pumapasimin (man-bird with striped mouth).
In other words, this flying archaeological feline could correspond to the God of the Water that should par excellence arise as corollary of the context of the Andean arid nature and with tribulations of atmospheric order, droughts for example. Due to the phenomenon of cultural continuity that presents the Andean world, Illapa, the being supernatural controller of the meteorological phenomena of the times of Incario, it could be the late incarnation of the Flying Feline. The myth of Qhoa, still effective, it points out that when entering the tempests a feline he/she moves for the clouds.
The case of the temple Chavin, like center of power and cult, allow to infer that it was lifted in a carefully elected place, under strict approaches magic-religious.
CHAVIN: I CENTER ADMINISTRATIVE AND OF CULT
When the columnist Vázquez of Espinosa already visited in 1616 those for then "ruins" of Chavín, the comarcanos informed him/her that in remote times it had been a cult center and pilgrimage. It is for that reason that it concludes comparing it with Rome or Jerusalem. In the same way, Tello insisted in the sacred character, of temple, of Chavín.
Probably the same place where Chavín should rise it was carefully elected, under strict approaches magic-religious because there are valleys more productive comarcanos that the strait of Mosna, even considering the use of its cultivated unirrigated land hillsides by means of terraces. The case of Chavín, in its condition of center of power and cult, allows to infer that it could be lifted in a place indicated by the magic, the same as Cuzco that was built between the creeks of Tullumayu and Huatanay and not in fact in the ubérrimo neighbor of Urubamba-Vilcanota fences.
The will of exercising domain, in order to adapt the production from the foods to the rhythm of the population's increase, it could be the function that Chavín completed, using for the effect the administration of practical agricultural, supported in pompous ritual and in the cult to the supernatural powers that controlled the production, especially to the God of the Water of the one that the rains benefactors depended like of the catastrophic droughts that destroyed the sementeras.
The monuments of Chavín, for their magnitude, are expressions carried out by an agrarian developed society, worried to satisfy the nutritious necessities of their members through geographical wide areas, like it seems to indicate it their character of pilgrimage center. For the same thing the society Chavín should be divided sharply in two sectors: that of the leaders and the one of those governed. Due to it the old civilizations of the orb were able to create grandiose works in volume, genius and art like that of Chavín. The abandonment of the place have been provoke by the nonfulfillment of the obligations assigned to the elites of looking after the sustenance, maybe when happening climatic devastating changes impossible to straighten with magic actions.
INCAN TIME: THE EXODUS
The cultures are as the men. They age and they die. And that passed with those that there was in the valley of the Santa and that, apparently, they had lost all their rolling push when the empire of the Inca arrived to that area.
They were the times of conquest of Capac Yupanqui. Not they were easy. Many towns of the valley offered inflamed resistance. According to the archaeological studies, some towns that you/they didn't want to undergo the Incan empire preferred to emigrate mass. In that exodus he/she would be the origin of some wild tribes. It is supposed that the Inca introduced the cult in the sun, because previously adoration was paid animals or celestial bodies that appeared in the night.
Source: Great Encyclopedia of Peru - Lexus.
Page created web March 30 of the one 2005.
© Copyright 2005 Gualberto Valderrama C.