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HOMAGE TO DON JOSÉ MARÍA ARGUEDAS ALTAMIRANO


(Andahuaylas, 1911 - Lima 1969) writer and Peruvian etnólogo, renovating of the literature of indigenist inspiration and one of the Peruvian most outstanding narrators in the XX century.

Their parents were the lawyer cuzqueño Victor Manuel Arguedas Arellano that acted as judge in diverse towns of the region, and Victoria Navarrese Altamirano. In 1917 their father married in second wedlocks (the mother had died before three years), and the family moved to the town of Puquio and then to San Juan of Lucanas. At the little time the father was ceased as judge by political reasons and he must work as itinerant lawyer, leaving his son under the care of the stepmother and the son of this who you/they gave him/her servant's treatment.

In 1921 he/she escaped with their brother Arístides of the stepbrother's oppression. They took refuge in the country property Viseca, where they lived two years in contact with the Indians, speaking their language and learning their customs, until in 1923 their father picked up them who took them in pilgrimage for diverse towns and cities of the mountain, for finally to settle down in Abancay.

After carrying out their secondary studies in Ica, Huancayo and Lima, it entered in 1931 to the Ability of Letters of the National University bigger than San Marcos from Lima to study Literature. Between 1932 and 1937 he/she worked as auxiliary of the Central Administration of Mail of Lima, but it lost the position when being captured to participate in a student manifestation in favor of the Spanish Republic.

After remaining around one year in the prison The Sixth, professor was named of Castilian and geography in Sicuani, in the department of Cuzco, position in that he discovered his etnólogo vocation. In October of 1941 it was added to the Ministry of Education to collaborate in the reformation of the plans of secondary studies. After representing the Peruvian faculty in the Indigenist Interamerican Congress of Patzcuaro (1942), it resumed their professor work of Castilian in the national schools Alfonso Ugarte, Our Mrs. of Guadalupe and Mariano Melgar of Lima, until in 1949 it was ceased by communist considerársele.



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HOMAGE TO DON JOSÉ MARÍA ARGUEDAS ALTAMIRANO


In March of 1947 General Conservative of Folklore was named in the Ministry of Education, for later on to be promoted to Boss of the Section Folklore, Fine arts and Office of the same ministry (1950 -52). In 1953 Boss of the Institute of Studies was named Etnológicos of the Museum of the Peruvian Culture, and the same year it began to publish the magazine American (organ of the Interamerican Committee of Folklore, of which was a secretary) Folklore, which directed during ten years.

To this position they happened that of director of the House of the Culture of Peru (1963 -1964) and director of the National Museum of History (1964 -1966), from which it would publish the magazines Culture and Town and History and Culture. It was also ethnology professor and Quechua in the Pedagogic National Institute of Males (1950 -53), professor of the Department of Ethnology of San Marcos' University (1958 -68), and professor in Molina's National Agrarian University from 1964 until their death, happened as a consequence of a shot that was shot in the temple and that it would cause their death later four days. It was rewarded with the Prize Development to the Culture in the areas of Social Sciences (1958) and Literature (1959 1962) and with the Inca Prize Garcilaso de la Vega (1968).

José's work María Arguedas

The intellectual production of Arguedas is quite wide and he/she understands, besides works of fiction, works, tests and articles on the Quechua language, the prehispanic mythology, the folclore and the popular education, among other aspects of the Peruvian culture. The special circumstance of being had educated inside two cultural traditions, the Westerner and the native, together to a delicate sensibility, they allowed him/her to understand and to describe as any Peruvian other intellectual the complex reality of the native Indian, with which was identified in a harrowing way.

On the other hand, in Arguedas the writer's work and that of the etnólogo is not never completely dissociated, and even in their more academic studies we find the lyrical same language that in their narrations. And although it was not skillful in the handling of the narrative modern techniques, their literature (based especially on the descriptions) knew how to communicate with great intensity the essence of the culture and the Andean landscape.

Arguedas lived a deep conflict among its love to the indigenous culture that he/she wanted he/she stayed in a "pure" state, and its desire of redeeming the Indian of its economic and social conditions. One can say that the nostalgia to the traditional forms of the Andean life made that it postulated a social statism, in open contradiction with its adhesion to the socialism.



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HOMAGE TO DON JOSÉ MARÍA ARGUEDAS ALTAMIRANO


Their work reveals the writer's deep love for the culture Andean Peruvian, to which owed its earliest formation, and it represents, without a doubt, the summit of the Peruvian indigenismo. Two circumstances help to explain the narrow relationship of Arguedas with the rural world. In first term that he/she was born in an area of Andes that didn't have bigger close contact with westernized strata; in second place that to their mother's death, their stepmother forced him to remain among the Indians. In that way it assimilated the Quechua language, and the same thing happened to the customs and the Andean resident's ethical and cultural values.

This precocious experience, lived first and symbolized in their writing by the Indian opposition / gentlemen, it would be seen later reinforced with the anthropological studies. As a result of this plot, the life of Arguedas lapsed between two not only worlds different, but also in war. Of there their voracious will arose of interpreting the Peruvian reality, the permanent correction of its ideas on the country and the definition of its work as the search of a valid image of this.

Already from their first stories the problem is noticed that would end up presiding over all its writing: the life, the chances and the sufferings of the Indians in the country properties and villages of the mountain of Peru. There also that essential division of two groups, gentlemen and Indians that it will be a constant in their narrative work shows up. The space in that its stories are developed is limited, what allows to this social and cultural opposition to be shown in their more dramatic and more painful aspects. The course of Arguedas is already traced; although in its internal jurisdiction he/she lives the ambiguity intensely off belonging to two worlds, its literary attitude is very clear, in the measure in that determines an adhesion without extenuating to the universe of the natives, generating two expression beds that will transform into sendos features of style: the epic representation and the lyrical introspection.

Their first book gathers three stories with the title of Water (1935) that describe aspects of the life in a village of Peruvian Andes. In these stories the first problem is noticed to the one that had to face in its narrative that is the one of finding a language that allowed its indigenous (monolingual Quechua) characters to be expressed in Spanish language without it sounded false. He/she would be solved it in an appropriate way with the employment of an invented" "language: on a lexical fundamentally Spanish base, it implants the syntactic rhythm of the Quechua one.

In Water the social and cultural conflicts of the Andean world are observed through the eyes of a boy. The indigenous world appears as receiver of values of solidarity and fondness, in opposition to the violence of the world of the targets.



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HOMAGE TO DON JOSÉ MARÍA ARGUEDAS ALTAMIRANO


In Yawar party, 1941, Arguedas outlines a problem of dispossession of lands that the inhabitants of a community suffer. With this work the author changes some of the rules of game of the indigenist novel, when underlining the dignity of the native one that he has known how to preserve his traditions in spite of the scorn of the sectors of power. This victorious aspect is, of for yes, unusual inside the indigenist canon, and he/she gives the possibility to understand the Andean world as an unitary body, governed by its own laws, faced to the westernized prevailing pattern in the coast of Peru.

In The deep rivers, of 1958, it proposes the autobiographical dimension as key interpretive. In this work we are shown their main character's formation, Ernesto (that it recovers the boy's main character name of some of the stories of Water), through a series of decisive tests. Their encounter with the city of Cuzco, the life in a school, its participation in the revolt of the indigenous women for the salt and the distressing discovery of the sex is some of the stages through which Ernesto defines his vision of the world. The world of the Indians assumes more and more mythical connotations, erecting you as an antidote against the brutality that you/they have the human relationships among the targets.

The following novel, The Sixth, published in 1961, represent a parenthesis with regard to the Andean cycle. "The Sixth" are the name of the prison of Lima where the writer was imprisoned in 1937-1938 by the dictatorship of Benavides. The prison hell is also a metaphor of the violence that dominates the whole Peruvian society.

With All the bloods, of 1964, Arguedas renewed, have more than enough wider bases, the representation of the Andean world. Of the autobiographical story he/she spends to a general square that he/she understands the economic, social and cultural transformations that happen in the Peruvian mountain. Through the history of a family of big latifundistas, the author confronts the consequences of the modernization process that it still advances on a world feudal.

All the bloods are a narrative project of long encouragement and much more ambitious, because it seeks to consider all the models that show up as alternative to build and to configure the Peruvian society. To it obeys it their structure coral, in which you/they face the capitalist project, the feudal order and a sketch of national capitalism. But the author invalidates each one of them, proposing as legitimate a social community model that doesn't scorn, but, the modernization. All the bloods elevate the indigenous problem to national problem, and it even offers him/her an universal tint, in the measure in that the conflict expressed in the novel already corresponds in that moment to the call Third World.



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HOMAGE TO DON JOSÉ MARÍA ARGUEDAS ALTAMIRANO


The last novel of Arguedas, The fox of up and the fox of below that was published posthumous in 1971, it was unfinished for the writer's suicide. The chapters that it was able to write are set in Chimbote, a fishing port of the north that suffers an impetuous and chaotic development. The author alternates the dramatic representation of the human costs of this growth, especially the loss of cultural identity of the Indians transplanted to the city, with newspaper notes, of which the decision, more and more relentless, emerges of committing suicide.

The literary image of Arguedas is also completed with its complete Stories, gathered in 1975, and with anthropological important investigations and folclóricas, besides its poetic production in Quechua language.

http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/a/arguedas.htm



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HOMAGE TO DON JOSÉ MARÍA ARGUEDAS ALTAMIRANO



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