COUNTY OF SAN PABLO
San Pablo's county is in the department of Cajamarca. Lima for the south with the county of Contumazá, for the east with the county of Cajamarca and for the north and northwest with San Miguel's county. San Pablo's county has a surface of 665.50 km2, occupying the one 2.02% of the department of Cajamarca. Also bill with 4 districts: San Luis, San Bernardino, Tumbadén and San Pablo. San Pablo's county has a varied temperature from 7 Cº and 20 Cº.
TOURIST ATTRACTIVENESS OF SAN PABLO'S COUNTY.
BALCONCILLO DE CALLANCAS
Located among Maqui Maqui and the Populated Center smaller than Callancas, to (45 minutes on foot) he/she is the tourist denominated place Balconcillo, the name of the place is due to the very prominent elevation that has the hill in connection with the south this of the territory of San Pablo's county, from this place one can observe the villages of Maqui Maqui, Yuragallpa, Liclipampa, Tuñad, among other because it is constituted in an I magnify mirador of the area. The old residents of this place have carved in the rock of the hill long roads that you/they communicate to the houses that even exist in the boulders challenging for thousands of years the inclemencies of the time. We can also observe bony remains, paintings rupestres and caverns where they are beautiful stalactites.
FOREST OF STONES
Located in the Populated Center of Callancas, it is a place of particular beauty, it contains significance attractiveness forming a scenario where they are conjugated the old man's work and working of the time.
WINDOWS DE TUMBADEN
Located in the district from Tumbadén to 3 Km of distance from the picturesque town, these windows are approximately a group of funeral niches worked in the external surface of the rockface with cavities in a rectangular or square way with a depth of 80 Cm of side, aligned in horizontal and vertical form, in the superior part of the hill we find big rocks that would have been used as ritual deposits and that at the moment they are constituted in natural miradors from which are appreciated one of the most beautiful landscapes in the area.
WINDOWS DE CUZCUDEN
Located in the village of Mangallpa or Cuzcudén, rural community where the main activity is the handmade ceramic used as china of domestic use. These windows are a group of niches dug in the rockface and that originally they were used as tombs.
WATERFALLS DE CHORROBLANCO is since an attractiveness natural paisajístico that reaches bigger vistosidad in continuous and abundant rainy season, these they provoke a detachment of water from a high plateau Dry denominated Well of which has its origin. An enormous fall of water is observed that it builds the main formador of the river Yaminchad, main source of watering of most agricultural of San Pablo, San Bernardino and San Luis.
WATERFALL THE TRIANGLE
Located in the district of Tumbadén, from this beautiful and picturesque district it can begin the aprox walk. 25 minutes, which invites us to be participant of the impressive falls of foamy water that spread of this called beautiful waterfall The triangle, for the form that has when being observed from the low part, this walk leaves impacted to the walker since in the itinerary one can observe impressive landscapes full with greenery making of this an unforgettable experience.
LAGOONS OF HIGH PERU
This area is located in the Village of High Peru, district of Tumbadén, county of San Pablo. The area of the lagoons is between the altitudes of 3,800 and 4,000 m.s.n.m. The Lagoons with an approximate area of 2,960 hectares, constitute aquifer natural one of the main ones of San Pablo's county and the basin of Jequetepeque conformed by 284 lagoons between small and big. Geológicamente these floors are of origin fluvio-glacier, with a.landscape wavy soft fisiográfico with a great number of lagoons that you/they are witnesses of the glaciations happened in these places, surrounded of a without number of Bofedales or saturated lands of water which constitute true sponges hídricas that provide water to great part of the basin during the whole year. This area of the lagoons constitutes a natural aquifer located in the head of the basin of Jequetepeque whose influence embraces the regions of Cajamarca, the Freedom and Lambayeque. They also give origin to puquíos and springs that are distributed in the whole county due to the infiltration of the water that later on he/she appears or it appears in the low areas and stockings.
San Pablo's Provincial Municipality in the month of February of the 2007 emits the Municipal ordinance Nº OOl-2007-MPSP. ; considering that for Supreme Ordinance 087-2004-PCM regulate the process of Ecological and Economic Zonificación in our country for the identification of different alternatives of sustainable use of a certain territory. That the article 9 incise b of the regulation of Ecological and Economic Zonificación it considers that to the heads of basins hidrográficas, it corresponds the category of use of protection areas and ecological conservation. The law of natural protected areas Nº26834 in their article 22 settle down in to maintain and to manage the functional conditions of the basins hidrográficas assuring the flow and quality of the water. The general law of the atmosphere Nº 28611 in their article 12 establish that all person has right irrenunciable to live in a healthy, balanced and appropriate atmosphere for the development of the life, the conservation of the biological diversity and sustainable use of the natural resources and the sustainable development.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL COMPLEX KUNTUR WASI
KUNTUR WASI, in the north mountain, is a ceremonial structure that was built, renovated and modified successively by several societies, in one period that he/she understands approximately from 1200 to 250 a.C. Under the floor of the temple lifted toward 800 a.C. they have been discovered several tombs with numerous offerings of gold, ceramic, stone decorations and bone, snails, etc.
Geographical and Historical Location
KUNTUR WASI, is located in the north mountain of Peru, in the basin of the river Jequetepeque, in Cajamarca, in the hill The Glass in San Pablo's county (2,300 m.s.n.m.). Belonging to the formative period, ll00 years A.C. it is about a hill in whose summit a temple was built in the Formative time and where, besides staggered platforms and funeral structures, evidences of related litoesculturas exist with the style Cupisnique, but so well elaborated as those of Chavín of Huántar.
The denomination of "Kuntur Wasi", is of Quechua origin, the one that means "House of the Condor."
The archaeologists have settled down for this place a chronology made up of 4 phases:
The most important in the history of the place is the phase Kuntur Wasi, when this Ceremonial Center worked very actively.
However Onuki could carry out a stylistic sequence that allows to settle down up to 5 cultural periods for this architectural complex. This sequence allowed to find non alone relationships with Chavín, but also with Cupisnique in the north coast and also with Layzon (Cajamarca).
History and Discovery
In the year 1945 the mission of the National Museum of Anthropology and Archaeology of Lima discovers the first objects of gold in Kunturwasi. However, it is newly starting from the year 1989 when the mission of the University of Tokyo, led by Yoshio Onuki, carries out the most overwhelming discoveries. Of the funeral contexts of elite dug by Japanese numerous goldwork pieces they were rescued, among those that the first objects chavinoides should be mentioned made of copper.
The Japanese mission that this area worked during several years, was able to analyze funeral several contexts and he/she found associated to them several goldwork pieces among those that necklaces are included, crowns, earmuffs, embossed pectoral and small heads trophy, all them of gold.
In the tombs dug in Kuntur Wasi the funeral trousseau it includes necklaces, crowns, earmuffs, bills and pectoral of embossed gold and soaked with head-trophy designs and of characters of the iconographies chavinoide, Cupisnique and of a local peculiar modality associated to Kuntur Wasi and to the region of Jequetepeque.
The connections of Kuntur Wasi with Chavín could be associated to the gold, but they also exist evidences of oneself type of vessels that are known with the name of Mosna in Chavín and whose distribution arrived until the regions of Huánuco and Ancash.
The Crown of the Fourteen Faces
The 14 of September of 1989 the professor Onuki observes in the area of excavations, in the bottom of the hole of the same one, on one of the lateral walls that had been carried out an opening where next to human covered bones for a reddish substance, there were funeral offerings as ceramic, snails, stone slopes, etc. AND a little more to the bottom, I could see, on the skull, something that shone sharply. It was gold.
It was the crown that took the deceased's body. It was a fine sheet of gold, in which had practiced hexagonal small cuttings in two bands (seven in each one), of those that lolled figures of expensive human. That that later call "the crown of the fourteen faces."
In ceramic and stone plates belonging to this culture are possible to observe drawings of expensive human, similar to those of the reliefs of Hill Sechín, located inside a square or hexagonal mark. In a stone plate, for example, a character-monster with jaguar face and body similar to the spider appears loading on its back a bag with some heads inside. In one of their hands, it sustains for the hair the victim's head. This drawing would represent the scene of the decapitation and the monster arachnid in charge of transporting the heads of those sacrificed.
Three anthropomorphous (monuments of stone of a single piece) new monoliths were discovered during the restoration works and conservation.
Yoshio Onuki, responsible for the Japanese delegation and director of the Museum Kuntur Wasi, explained that, surprisingly, two of the discovered monoliths lack heads.
Also, the Japanese investigator detailed that a monolith (that it represents a seated person with the lifted knees) was party in two.
The second piece, of a meter high, also sample a human figure with the hands in the chest and a belt with figures of human faces.
The third piece is a square (50 x 50 centimeters) stone that represents a human face with the mouth in funnel form, but without perforation.
Also, he/she explained that the three discovered stones belong to the phase it Surrounds (from 450 to 250 years a.C.).
In another place of Kuntur Wasi has also been mythical beings' monoliths that sustain human heads in its hands. The heads of those sacrificed are cut by a specialist one and then they are transported until the gods.
To give heads to the gods, that is to say, sacrifices, he/she means to give the life, the most important thing that the human being possesses. To change, the gods assure good time, bumper crops, health and fertility. In this relationship, the heads of those sacrificed work as mediators between the men and the gods.
In the central platform, they were enterradadas for hundred of years the tombs of the priests or high dignitaries that presided over the rituals. The individuals were buried with offerings like crowns, narigueras, earmuffs of gold and silver that represent the oldest goldwork in the continent; as well as you die vessels and necklaces of shells spondylus and reasonable strombus .al the same as the characters. of the north coast.
Renovation of Cemeteries
But the most important in these discoveries is that he/she has been able to clarify the process in that the funerals took place. THE point in common of the eight sepulchres it is that they are not in specific places as cemeteries. The funerals were made in old structures of use ceremonial and, in several cases, after the funeral a new temple was built on the structure of the previous one. These evidences point out that the renovation of the temples was carried out in a series of ritual acts, in those that the old construction was frequently "buried" next to an important, accompanied character of offerings of gold.
Connections with Chavín
Around 1946 Dr. Julio C. Tello, explored this area. Based on the opposing discoveries it considered that they were very transcendent and that they had linking with the culture Chavín.
The archaeological evidences indicate knots common with Chavín (gallery of the offerings), not alone for the seemed pieces of gold, but also for the use of the same type of vessels found in both places.
MUSEUM OF PLACE DE KUNTUR WASI
The discovery of the tombs associated with objects of gold and other discoveries had driven to the construction of a place (Conga) museum.
It is located to 3 km of San Pablo's (7 minutes in car) city.
It shows permanent of the objects of gold, precious stones, ceramic, lithic and bony remains found in the excavations of Kuntur Wasi. Also, the maps, plans and pictures of the investigation works can be seen carried out by the University of Tokyo. It is located in the summit of the hill The Glass, to 2273 msnm.
The pieces found in the rigorous excavation processes and investigation are in the place museum, next to the complex and that it is in charge of the community of the town of Kuntur Wasi. The residents that have participated in the archaeological campaigns, offer the one guided to the complex and they take charge of maintaining the museum and the preserved place and protected.
It is their geography the one that places it as intermediate point among the so much regions of the coast like of the mountain on one hand the valley of Jequetepeque and for the other one the valley of Cajamarca.
I Develop of the Explorations
Kuntur Wasi is known for the Peruvian archaeology from 1946, when Julio C. Tello sent a team of archaeologists of the National Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology to the place to investigate the existence of some monoliths. The team was conformed by Pablo Career, Cirilo Huapaya, José Casafranca and René Candle. They dug for 6 months, and the summary with the results of this work Rebeca published it Carrión Cachot in 1948. Cirilo Huapaya returned in 1955 and he/she carried out some excavations. In 1982 and 1983 the investigators of the Archaeological "Project of the Valley of Jequetepeque", directed by Michael Tellenbach carry out a rising taquimétrico with curved of level each 25 centimeters, a true contribution for the studies of the place. From 1988 the Archaeological Mission of the University of Tokyo carries out investigation works, creating, also the Museum of Place of Kuntur Wasi that keeps the pieces of incalculable value extradías of the place.
We have appreciated the discovery and the persevering work of the Japanese mission in the study and investigation that you/they carry out from 1988 of the Archaeological Place of Kuntur Wasi.
At the present time near 150 people Wasi like part of the project work in the recovery, restoration and conservation of Kuntur Unesco-Japan, in charge of Japanese and Peruvian archaeologists, with the special support of the National University of Saitama (Japan).
The works executed in the ruins, as the restoration of the stairway, the walls of the parts this and west of the main facade of the complex, as well as the squares of the temple, are part of the agreement signed among both institutions.
ENTRANCES TO THE MUSEUM OF I SIEGE "KUNTUR WASI"
Page created web March 30 of the one 2005.
© Copyright 2005 Gualberto Valderrama C.