THE 14 INCA OF THE INCAN EMPIRE
Gallery dedicated to the 14 Inca of the Incan Empire; according to Inca Garcilaso de la Vega chronicles, with their names in Quechua, their meaning in Spanish, period in which governed, the panaca to which you/they belonged and the dynasty.
THE INCA OF THE INCAN EMPIRE
HANDLESS CAPAC - MANKO QHAPAQ - Powerful Boss.
PERIOD: 1198 - 1228, PANACA: CHIMA PANACA, DYNASTY: HURIN
Character semilegendario, on which you/they rotate two legends that point out it as founder of the Incan Empire. One indicates that it left the foamy ones you dilute sel Lake Titicaca, together with Ocllo he/she Suckles. Their father the God Sun, of he/she gave a stick of gold, indicating him/her that where you undiera founded the Empire. In the hill of Wanakauri the stick collapsed and I found the City of Qosqo. The Sun, their father commended him/her the mission of teaching the men the knowledge characteristic of the male, necessary to be useful to the homeland that was founded.
Civilizador of the wild tribes that Qosco occupied was, teaching them the cultivation of the corn and the potato and the care of the animals as the flame. The other legend counts that I Maim Capac it was one of the four children of the God Sun that came out from a hill to 25 km. of Qosco.
The four siblings Ayar: Manko (Qhapaq), Ayar Kachi, Ayar Uchu and Ayar Auqa, married four sisters: Oqllo Suckles, Huaqo Suckles, Qora Suckles and Ruwa Suckles. The headquarters was assumed by Manko Qhapaq. Ayar Uchu is in the road to serve in the sun, become stone in the hill Wanakauri.
Ayar Cachi, great manejador of the sling, it would be transfigured in the valley when making fall mountains with their sling, while Ayar Auqa, he/she should be a winged genius, also become stone and protective of the City of Qosco to where it would arrive with Manko Qhapaq. It is considered as Inka belonging to the dynasty of Urin Qosqo in the pleyade of Legendary Inkas whose origin goes back in the legend and the myth. It governed between 30 and 40 years.
THE INCA OF THE INCAN EMPIRE
SINCHI ROQA - SINCHI Rock - Magnificent Gerrero.
PERIOD: 1228 - 1258, PANACA: RAURA PANACA, DYNASTY: HURIN
Sinchi Rock (Sinchi Ruq'a) was the second ruler of the Inca curacazgo. Their name in Quechua magnificent Guerrero means. It is believed that their government began approximately in the year 1230 and it finished approximately in the year 1260 of our era.
Legitimate son of Handless Cápac and Ocllo Suckles. He/she was born in Tampuquiro, it leaves of the Kingdom of Pallata, one of the many whereabouts in which their parents stopped when they went in search of a fixed place in the one which to settle down. His father, for political ends married it with he Suckles Coca, the gentleman's of the ayllu of Soña (what today is the neighborhood of San Sebastían, in Cusco) daughter.
When their father died he behaved proud Mascaipacha (it crowns real).
In spite of their abilities like warring Sinchi Rock it could not expand the small domain that their father had inherited him/her, the neighboring ethnoses showed rejection to the Inca because some invaders considered them occupying other people's lands and hence they constantly attacked to the Inca small dominion with intentions of expelling them.
Sinchi Rock was able to get the friendship from some dominions bordering to its domains, and more important it was the friendship with the boss of Ayamarcas who in a previous confrontation to the truce flew two front teeth to Sinchi.
Sinchi Rock that could only be called: Sinchi, because he/she didn't pass of being a valiant warrior, it was not able to expand the domains but yes it could resist to the constants attacks and to achieve peace with Ayamarcas, in that then the Kingdom more feared by the inhabitants of the valley of Cusco that were not only the Inca, but many other more dominions.
Sinchi Rock had decided that its Handless son Sacapa will inherit the throne, however it changed decision for unknown reasons, granting the throne to Lloque Yupanqui.
It is ignored the exact dates in that he/she lived and Sinchi Rock reigned but they vary enough among the different historians. According to Sarmiento (1572) he/she was born in 548 and it reigned between 656 and 675 (overcoming the 100 years when beginning their reign); according to Hair Balboa (1586) it reigned between 1006 and 1083; Others speak from 1062 to 1091 or 1178 and 1197.
Their main works in favor of the empire are: It roped bonds of friendship with the boss of the ethnos Saños. It roped bonds of friendship with the boss of the great ethnos Ayamarca. It resisted to the continuous attacks of enemy ethnoses.
Source: http://es.wikipedia.org / wiki / Sinchi_Roca
THE INCA OF THE INCAN EMPIRE
LLOQE YUPANKI - LLOQUE YUPANQUI - Left-handed Memorable.
PERIOD: 1258 - 1288, PANACA: AWAYNI PANACA, DYNASTY: HURIN
Lloque Yupanqui (Lluq'i Yupanki) (in Quechua: left-handed memorable) it was the third governor of the Inca curacazgo; it didn't almost achieve then any territorial expansion throughout their government the constant fights for the permanency in the valley of Cusco they impeded it. He/she had like wife to Cagua, the gentleman's of Oma daughter, a dominion to 11 kilometers to the south of Cusco Suckles.
Lloque Yupanqui was not dedicated originally to be the successor of Sinchi Rock, a mysterious decision of last moment he/she made it inherit the throne. He/she had as parents to Sinchi Rock and their wife Chimpo Urma
Lloque Yupanqui broke the good relationships that its father had gotten with the powerful dominion of Ayarmaca. In spite of having an enemy (again Ayarmaca) dangerous Lloque Yupanqui it was forced to form and to maintain good relationships diplomats with the dominions bordering, thing that made, and he/she made it knowingly.
During their government, the boss-warrior of Ayarmaca Yupanqui died in combat (it seems that the combat was not against the Inca) and Lloque, taking advantage of the situation was able to conquer in some battles to this ethnos getting rid that its dangerous attacks for many years. During the anarchy of the dominion of Ayarmaca, Lloque Yupanqui is made friend and ally of some cities ayamarcas, and it provokes rivalries in this great dominion.
The laurels of the government of Lloque Yupanqui is not come in territorial expansions, but in a time of relative peace, where it maintains good diplomacies with other dominions and he/she gets rid temporarily of Ayarmacas that always represented a threat for the Inca dominion until that moment.
He/she Died in Inticancha. After their death, to Lloque Yupanqui him sucedío their fourth son: Mayta Cápac.
As in all the Inca Sapas of the local hsitoria, their existence this setting in doubt, and also the dates in that he/she lived and I reign:
Their main works were:
Source: http://es.wikipedia.org / wiki / Lloque_Yupanqui
THE INCA OF THE INCAN EMPIRE
MAYTA QHAPAQ - Where the Powerful one is.
PERIOD: 1288 - 1318, PANACA: USCAMAYTA PANACA, DYNASTY: HURIN
Mayta Cápac (In quechua:Mayta Qhapaq that means: And where your wealth is?) it was the fourth governor of the Inca dominion, when Lloque Yupanqui died, Mayta Cápac was even very small to assume the power, so its uncle assumed the control until this was mature.
It was the fourth son of Lloque Yupanqui, before this it governed, the ethnos Alcahuisa saw in the anarquíca Inca society an opportunity to be liberated, one night they attacked for surprise the inticancha, in that then the ruler's palace, Mayta Cápac was able to escape favored by its athletic abilities and later, the Inca ethnos would combat to the rebels of Alcahuisa.
Mayta Cápac married Tancaray, daughter of the curaca of the dominion of Collagua he/she Suckles.
The war against the rebellious ethnos of Alcahuisa continues for a while lingering, in three battles the Inca victory was accentuated taking prisoner to the leader of the rebellious ethnos and killing him of hunger in a sancayhuasi (jail).
When Mayta Cápac was the sufficiently mature thing to be a governor, the Inca already represented a concern for Ayamarcas who could not expel him of the valley of Cusco in one century.
Mayta Cápac their government gave Tarco Huamán, who received a coup d'etat almost immediately on the part of his cousin of initiate his command.
Their main work went the one that defeated the rebels of Alcayhuasi.
THE INCA OF THE INCAN EMPIRE
QHAPAQ YUPANKI - CAPAC YUPANQUI - Powerful and Memorable.
PERIOD: 1318 - 1348, PANACA: APU MAYTA CAPAC PANACA, DYNASTY: HURIN
Cápac Yupanqui (Qhapaq Yupanki) was the fifth governor of the Inca dominion, he/she entered to the power by means of a coup d'etat to its cousin Tarco Huamán. Cápac Yupanqui turned out to be a hardened ruler, and also very Machiavellian.
It was son of Curu Yaya, sister of Mayta Cápac, cousin of Tarco Huamán. To assure their throne it killed 9 siblings of Tarco, to other he/she made them swear loyalty. However it was more benevolente with Tarco Huamán because it only sent it to govern to the conquered dominions of Elk and Whose.
During their reign, it defeated some small ethnoses like Cuntis, adding this way some square few kilometers to their domains. The reputation of the Inca dominion went growing, so much so the Quechua dominion, of Abancay sent them two ambassadors to request help to face to the powerful state (almost empire) Chanca. Cápac accepted and he/she sent its cousin Tarco to capture 1000 avecillas of the forest and of the highland to be burned in military rituals.
In the government of Cápac Yupanqui the Inca dominion continued being small before Ayamarcas, and a tiny dominion in comparison with the powerful state Chanca.
The state Chanca was already feared by the Ayamarcas (who had recovered of the civil wars that Lloque Yupanqui generated among them), and he/she was projected to the taking of the whole region Cusco, including to the Inca and ayamarcas. For such a situation both looked for an alliance, and he/she was reflected when the king of Ayamarca gave Cápac Yupanqui a called wife Curi Hilpay.
Cápac Yupanqui never faced the powerful state Chanca, because he/she died poisoned before these they arrived in Cusco.
Cusi Chimbo, one of the wives of Cápac Yupanqui poisoned him before this if he/she wants names a successor. This, part of a plot that organized Inca Rock, king of the Inca dynasty Hanan was.
Their main works were:
THE INCA OF THE INCAN EMPIRE
INKA ROQA - Inca Rock - Magnificent Inca.
PERIOD: 1348 - 1378, PANACA: WIKAK'IRAW PANACA, DYNASTY: HANAN
Contrary to Handless Cápac and their successors, Inca Rock pertenecío to the dynasty Hanan, the same one that governed Taipicala, and it restored a diarquía that consisted on giving the government to the dynasty Hanan, and the priesthood to the dynasty Hurin. This change, was obviously only possible with its coup d'etat.
It was the first in being called Inca (supreme governor, king) Inca Rock he/she had to abandon the inticancha to live in their own palace and to leave this temple to the dynasty Hurin that from then on would take charge of the priesthood. Starting from him, their descendants lived in their own palace and no longer in the inticancha.
It attacked to the ethnoses of he/she Chews, Cautomarca and Quiquijana, inclusive conquered Pinaguas definitively (it was a great victory taking into account that Pinagua was half of the powerful dominion of Ayarmaca).
In spite of their victories, they didn't win a lot in territory because they only plundered cities and a lot of time didn't pass that the expels of them.
It hired to the armies of the ethnoses of Gray-headed and Canchis to combat to Chancas, was able to impede its expansion for some time, that which in fact was a since error they wanted to attack Ayamarcas and not to the Inca (still).
He/she left several descendants, but the one that would happen him/her after their death would be their son Yahuar Huáca.
source: http://es.wikipedia.org / wiki / Inca_Roca
THE INCA OF THE INCAN EMPIRE
YAWAR WAQAQ - YAHUAR HUACA - the One that Blood Cries.
PERIOD: 1378 - 1408, PANACA: AWKAYLLI PANACA, DYNASTY: HANAN
Yahuar Huácac (Yawar Waqaq) (Quechua: the one that blood cries), from birth Tito Cusi Hualpa, was the seventh military boss of the Inca curacazgo and second registered in taking the Inca title.
It was abducted by Ayamarcas when he/she was boy. During their captivity, the king ayamarco ordered his execution. When the boy found out, blood (it was maybe because of sharp conjunctivitis) cried. However, the governor ayamarco sympathized with of him. One year later it was liberated and it almost governed time.
Inca Rock took like main wife to Mamay Micay, both engendered Tito Cusi Hualpa who later called Yahuar would become Huacac. Micay suckles it belonged to the ethnos of Huallacanes, it was offered.
After crying blood and to be returned to Cusco, Tito Cusi Hualpa passed to call himself Yahuar Huacac (the one that blood cries). Those whole events happened during the reign of Inca Rock, as this it didn't attack Ayarmacas we know that inclusive when these they lost Pinaguas they continued being even very strong as so that the Inca invade them.
Following their father's example, Yahuar Huacac united its government to the second son of the called coya Pahuac Gualpa Mayta but the prince died soon after, victim of the intrigues of a woman of the Inca that wanted to see his own corregente son.
When it organized a conquest expedition, Cuntis they rebelled bothered by the mitas or works for the State that the Inca imposed them. Their rebellion was a firm success, almost they raze with Cuzco, and they could make it, however a stormy storm made them think that it was about a wrong premonition and they decided to escape.
The rebellious ethnos, Cuntis, its palace, but Yahuar attacked Huacac it was able to escape to Inticancha, however Cuntis entered to the room and they killed him next to their siblings in the same door of the temple. The destructions were enormous and the Inca dominion was about to extinguish. Happily (for the Inca) he/she fell a stormy storm which Cuntis that was a wrong premonition forcing them to abandon the city was taken. Yahuar Huacac didn't have time of choosing its successor.
THE INCA OF THE INCAN EMPIRE
WIRAQOCHA INKA - Inca WIRACOCHA - HUIRACOCHA - Sea Foam.
PERIOD: 1408 - 1438, PANACA: SUQSU PANACA, DYNASTY: HANAN
Hatun Tópac, later Inca (quechua:Wiraqucha Inqa, 'the Inca of Huiracocha') called Huiracocha, it was the eighth ruler of the Inca dominion. He/she took the name of Inca Viracocha because it assured to have had a divine dream with the god Viracocha.
During their government it conquered some dominions, he/she made some works in the capital (Cusco) and in the few counties that they had. It accepted the rendition and delivery of Cuzco before an embassy Chanca and it escaped with their favorite children, you handcuff and servants.
After the murder of Yahuar Huácac went difficult to choose a since heir many of its siblings and children were killed to its side.
Not it was son of Yahuar Huácac, however it was presented as such because it belonged to their predecessor's same dynasty: the hanan.
It conquered the dominions of Yucay and it Traces, there in it Traces it built their own palace. Constant attacks of Ayamarcas and Guayamarcas that it was able to suffocate successfully received.
It improved the agriculture and the Inca supplies. It enlarged the groves and the textile production, it implanted the tocapus (you figure geometric in the clothes of the noblemen).
Aymara traveled to the Kingdom leaving as Inca ratin (vice-ruler) to her favorite son: Inca Urco. In Aymara, it was made friend of this and other dominions, when returning he/she decided to live in their palace of it Traces to be permanently with Curi Chulpi, a secondary wife but to who loved fervently more than to any other one.
During their government, powerful Chancas sent him/her two emissaries requesting their rendition and unconditional delivery of their domains, including Cusco, this it accepted and it escaped to Chita next to their servants, wives and children.
After their rendition and escape together with their Inca son Urco, abandons Cusco generating uncertainty and confusions, its escape and rendition they were unexpected. However, Cusi Yupanqui (Pachacútec), their third son makes a general call to the neighboring ethnoses, and after getting allies combat and it expels Chancas of Cusco, later on bush to Inca Urco for own defense, act that causes the resentment in Huiracocha, who never more it returned to Cusco from his escape.
He/she died in the forgetfulness, very gray (sew not very common in the men of Andean ethnos) and suffocated by the magnificence of who it never named as successor: Pachacútec.
Their works were:
Source: http://es.wikipedia.org / wiki / Huiracocha_Inca
THE INCA OF THE INCAN EMPIRE
PACHAKUTIQ - PACHACUTEC - Transformer of the Earth.
PERIOD: 1438 - 1471, PANACA: HATUN AYLLU, DYNASTY: HANAN
Pachacútec (Quechua: Pachakutiq; "The one that changes the direction of the earth") it was the ninth ruler of the Inca state and who converted it from a simple curacazgo to a great empire: Tahuantinsuyo. Although it had not been designated as successor by their father Inca Huiracocha, it directed a military defense before the belligerent army Chanca while this and their Inca son Urco had escaped from the dominion. The victory on the chancas made that Inca wiracocha recognized it as its successor around 1438.
As part of their statesman vision and warring commander conquered many ethnoses and states, its conquest of Collao that increased the prestige of the Inca ones highlighting and particularly of Pachacútec who for the remarkable expansion of its domains an exceptional leader was considered, giving life to epic histories and glorious hymns in tribute to his feats. Numerous curacas didn't doubt to recognize its dexterity and to identify it as "son of the Sun." While he/she still lived, their son and successor Túpac Yupanqui defeated to the dominion Chimú and it continued with the expansion of Tahuantinsuyo. Besides conqueror, warrior and emperor, diverse chronicles affirm that it was also a great administrator, planning, philosopher, observer of the human and charismatic general psychology.
Pachacútec is the first Inca of which you/they are historical references that corroborate its existence for which it is called grateful as the "first historical" Inca, however, the relevance of its figure and legacy, as well as that of its denomination, takes to think several specialists that he/she has a much bigger importance that the one of alone a character, ending up representing the beginning of an entire transition time and restructuring for the Inca society, stage of changes that would continue later to its death in 1488, for its son Túpac Yupanqui and its grandson Huayna Cápac.
Born with the name of Cusi Yupanqui, was son of Inca Wiracocha and of Runto he/she Suckles; it was always admired by the Inca noblemen because he/she had the courage, intelligence and maturity that so much made lack to its Inca brother Urco (who had been named as successor of Inca Viracocha), in the same way it showed aptitudes for the government and the conquests that in a same way Inca Urco lacked.
Repeated times it was recommended Huiracocha by the noblemen as the most capable in their children to take the mascaipacha when this dies, but according to chronic Huiracocha he/she had become fond so much with Inca Urco that always preferred it before any other person.
Conflict with Chancas
When Chancas sent their emissaries to Cusco, Inca and Inca Viracocha Urco accepted the rendition and immediately they escaped causing the surprise in the Inca ethnos, being the savior the prince Cusi Yupanqui. Before the anarchy, Cusi Yupanqui (name true of Pachacútec) requested in vain its father's return.
Before the negation of Huiracocha, Pachacútec made a general call to the neighboring ethnoses to resist to the threat together Chanca, the Gray-headed ones were the only ones that allied to the Inca, Ayamarcas the only ones that allied to Chancas were also and the other ethnoses waited to see who would lean toward the victory for unírseles.
The first battle was in Cusco where the soldiers of the Inca army conquered favored by the ethnoses spectators that were united as soon as they began to win. Then in Ichubamba the Inca victory was accentuated, giving origin to the legend of the stone soldiers.
Once defeated Chancas, the Inca enlisted the celebrations in Cusco to which Huiracocha was invited by Pachacútec, however Huiracocha refused unless they took Inca Urco to that receives the credits for its parallel co-reign to the attack Chanca, obviously nobody he/she wanted to receive it. Motivated by the envy, Urco organized a small army and they went to Cusco to overthrow Pachacútec, but this, knowingly prepared it defeated it. Inca Urco was quartered and its remains were heady to a river.
"...and the such gentlemen caciques left of there rights where Inca Viracocha was and they told him/her how Inca Yupanqui sent them there to that sees in what it was served that they serve him/her; and I eat Inca Virachoca the sees before yes and so great multitude of gentlemen and of so much power, holgose much of it (...). After distributing them chicha glasses and portions of coca, levantose in foot Inca Viracocha and considering that because their son sent him/her those gentlemen and they so much loved him/her and they wanted him/her for Mister that was fair that him also in cheers up them. He/she made them certain sentence, for for which he on their behalf thanked them that that for him and for their son they had made, and that they already knew (...) that him until there it had been Mister of Cusco, and that you had come out of him for causes that for they moved him/her; and that of there from now on Inca Yupanqui, their son, it had to be Mr. in the city of Cusco." Taken of "Sum and narration of the Inca", columnist Juan of Betanzos.
Ceñimiento of the mascaipacha
When dying Inca Urco, Cusi Yupanqui was only candidate to assume the government of the confederation cusqueña. Due to the popular clamor, the preparations began for the ceremony in which the prince would stick to the mascaipacha. To application of Cusi, an orejones cortege went to it Traces in search of Inca Viracocha to request and to request that he/she went to Cusco to give the mascaipacha to the new leader; in that way it would amend the it dishonors of having abandoned the capital in the middle of conflict against Chancas.
Numerous flames loaded with offerings began to arrive to the city of Cusco from the neighboring towns and, even, from farther. Of Anti countless baskets of coca, grass and aromatic resins were brought; of Yungas, on the other hand, they arrived shells used in the sacrifices, as well as peppers and red rocotos that would be employees to season the real banquet.
Conform to it approached the day of the ceremony, the curacas and noblemen invited confederates made their entrance in the capital with great magnificence surrounded by their retinue. Each one of the visitors brought beautiful gifts in recognition sign, among those that could be observed showy you walk, decorated queros, soft blankets, metals beautiful and exotic plumerías.
Arrived the prospective day, after the priests headed by the willac umu made a series of sacrifices and prayers, including the immolation of children like part of the well-known ritual as Cápac Cocha, Inca own Viracocha proceeded to place the real tassel in the head of young Cusi Yupanqui, naming him of there from now on, as Pachacútec Yupanqui Cápac Intichuri, that is to say, "son of the Sun that transforms the world."
Once invested as Inca, Pachacútec it determined that it was their father Huiracocha the first in surrendering him/her homage. For it the old Inca should drink a pot full with chicha until leaving it it empties. Without any objection Huiracocha completed that ordered and, when finishing, he/she leaned asking for forgiveness to have abandoned Cusco in full war. Pachacútec, always respecting the old man's range and I eat son, he/she helped him to incorporate immediately.
According to the information picked up by several columnists, the historians commonly accept that the government of Pachacútec began around the year 1438 and it finished with his death around the year 1471. During their government, Inca Curacazgo consolidated in front of threats of local towns and it transformed it in Tahuantinsuyo, beginning an imperial time for the Inca. He/she carried out conquering several expeditions and he/she took charge others respectively to their brother and son. For all this, their government is recognized as one of the most successful in the history of before Columbus America.
Beginning of the imperial expansion
The same as their predecessors, the first activity that the new Inca should carry out was to face a rebellion, this time organized by the descending ayarmacas of Tocay Cápac. A bloody battle was carried out in Huanancancha, but the superiority of the Inca army gave the victory to Pachacútec who, resolved to annihilate the insurrectionists definitively, it razed the enemy towns decimating its population's great part. After this defeat, the dangerous curacazgo of the ayarmacas don't recover its old might again. The sinchi ayarmaca was led as prisoner to Cusco, where it passed the rest of its days locked in prison.
During their government's first months Pachacútec had to subject to neighboring several sinchis of Cusco: Wide Páucar and Tocari Collide of Ollantaytambo; Ascaguana and Urcocona of Huacara; and Alcapariguana of Toguaro. Contrary to the wars carried out in the previous reigns, these military campaigns represented a true effort to consolidate a territorial unit, a prevalence of the cusqueños on their comarcanos. The numerous wars that it would sustain in the future would allow him/her to acquire a territorial enormous extension.
First conquering expedition
Dominated the neighboring curacas, Pachacútec decided to organize an expedition toward the old territories chancas. To the control of more than 40.000 men, transported in you walk, the Inca went toward the river Apurímac. When arriving to Curahuasi, to 26 leagues of Cusco, he/she gave a palla from Cusco to the boss chanca Túpac Uasco. With this act Pachacútec achieved the adhesion of the sinchi. The expedition continued toward Andahuaylas, where, after a meeting of the orejones advice, he/she was solved to advance toward the territory of the soras. The resistance offered by the sinchis Guacralla, of Soras, and Puxayco, of Chalco, it was destroyed with easiness. The soras and rucanas escaped toward the vicinities of the river Vilcas and they took refuge in a crag. After remaining some time in Soras, the Inca lifted his general barracks and he moved toward Huamanga, conquering all the towns visited in the itinerary. The following objective was Vilcashuamán, an important center of the region; when it arrived to this place, Pachacútec ordered to build a Temple of the Sun and several constructions. This way the establishment transformed into an administrative important center.
Once dominated the whole region of the chancas and their confederates, the return was undertaken to lands cusqueñas. Before arriving at the capital, the Inca should subject to the sinchis Ocacique and Otaguasi, gentlemen of the town of Acos, located to ten leagues of Cusco. As reprisal to have been hurt in the head during the confrontation, Pachacútec banished the survivors and it relocated them in the terms of Huamanga, where it is today the town of Acos.
Expedition toward Collasuyo
They spent approximately ten years after the coronation of Pachacútec, when he/she died in their residence from Inca old Huiracocha it Traces. In honor to their range, Pachacútec organized a solemn funeral. The body of the deceased Inca was walked in you walk for Cusco carrying its weapons and real badges. The funeral retinue moved adjusted by the slow one to resound of the drums whose sound marked the step of dozens of warriors. At the little time, Pachacútec restarted its military expansionary campaign, sending a group of soldiers to the control of Apo Count Mayta toward the frontier with the collas, powerful group that had as Mister to Chuchi Cápac, also well-known as Colla Cápac. Not Pachacútec took in uniting to these troops of advanced, entering in enemy lands until arriving to the foot of Vilcanota.
Informed Colla Cápac of the Inca incursion in its territories, went with its armies to the town of Ayaviri to wait for them. When arriving Pachacútec to this town it could check that a peaceful subjection would not take place, for what a long battle was begun. As the fight was prolonged fearing to be defeated, the collas was refolded toward Pucará, up to where they were pursued by the Inca. In Pucará he/she got rid a second confrontation of which you/they came out not only victorious the cusqueños, but rather they were able to take prisoner to powerful Colla Cápac. Once insured the victory, Pachacútec went to Hatun Colla, habitation of the defeated curaca, where it remained until all the subordinate towns came closer to surrender him/her obedience. After small fights with the residents of Juli and the pacasas, Pachacútec was able to dominate the whole Collao, leaving gears and a governor-general there. Their following destination was the territory of Condesuyos: their conquests took him/her for Arequipa and Camaná, and he/she returned to Cusco for Chumbivilcas.
Expeditions in charge by Pachacútec
Later to the victory in front of chancas and collas, the legislative obligations of Pachacútec retained it in Cusco, for what had to take charge (and not to direct more) the following conquering expeditions of the Inca Empire, while he took charge of the remodeling of Cusco and the imperial government's consolidation. The first of these expeditions were taken charge to their brother Cápac Yupanqui toward territories of the Kingdom Chimú, and the other ones to their son and successor Túpac Yupanqui as much to the north as to the south of the empire, with these conquests Tahuantinsuyo would arrive its maximum expansion and better consolidation close, all first floor the government of ninth Inca Sapa: Pachacútec.
Imperial consolidation and renovation of CuscoWhen taking charge the conquering expeditions to their son and successor Túpac Yupanqui, Pachacútec took charge and it continued with the remodelings of the capital of the empire: the city of Cusco. When having increased the population of the capital the demands of housings, foods and primary necessities also increased, reason why Pachacútec undertook a series of constructive and agricultural works: the formation of new neighborhoods, their distribution in lots and the rising of new squares and "courts"; Inca Sapa made deforest several areas around Cusco so that they are used as sementeras, relocating its occupants in areas with similar climate. In the same way, the agricultural production was intensified thanks to the creation of channels in the city of Cusco, to the best distribution of waters, to the new storage systems and construction of platforms.
It can be considered their first architectural great work the reedificación of the "Temple of the Sun" or "Inticancha", the humble construction of its ancestors became a replete temple of wealths, you refaccionó the structure with lithic blocks obtained from the quarries of Sallu, to five leagues of Cusco; for all the new sumptuosity of the palace it became well-known as "Coricancha (I Temper of gold)."
"And seen by him (Pachacútec) the place where to him better he found that the house was due built, it sent that there was brought a line, and being brought him, levantáronse of the place where they were him and his, and being already in the place where it had to be the built house, him same for its hands with the line measured and it traced the House of the Sun; and there being her layout, it left of there with his and he/she went to a town that Sallu says that is almost five leagues of this city that is where the quarries are taken out, and it measured the stones for the building of this house, and this way measures, of the towns comarcanos put the stones that it was pointed out them and those that were enough for the building of this house (...) as well as Inca Yupanqui had traced it and imagined." Taken of "Sum and narration of the Inca", columnist Juan of Betanzos.
Another of the most important changes carried out by Pachacútec was the division of the growing empire in four suyus, having like center the city of Cusco (navel of the world); to the east Antisuyu, to the west Contisuyu, to the north Chinchaysuyu and to the south Collasuyu.
Death and succession
He/she died in the middle of acme of the empire naturally, it was recognized and valued as Inca biggest Sapa by their contributions to the expansion and consolidation of the Inca nascent Empire. Their mummy was taken in its tiana or seat, loaded by the big gentlemen to the square Aucaypata, where he/she was surrendered homage. The real exequias began with the encounter among the mummies of Pachacútec and Inca Huiracocha, their father. The sovereign deceased was dressed with magnificent blankets and decorations of gold and silver, besides a headdress of feathers and a coat of arms. Finally their mummy was placed in the center of Tococache (current neighborhood of San Blas, in Cusco) in a temple dedicated to the thunder that him same it sent to build.
The succession in the control of the Inca Empire, it was assumed by their son, Túpac Inca Yupanqui, with who had co-governed during the last years and who had demonstrated a warring great dexterity and conqueror in the expeditions that Pachacútec had taken charge him/her as much toward the north as toward the south of the imperial territory. This way, without any objection, Túpac Yupanqui would stick to the mascaipacha and it would assume the government of Tahuantinsuyo completely, after the death and its father's real exequias.
Transformation of the Kingdom to Empire
Mitimaes system and quechuización
Architecture and urbanism
The figure of Pachacútec, given the implicancia and connotation of their title in Quechua: the one that transforms the world, has been object of countless discussions according to the mythical and idealistic vision that one has on him and the consolidation of the Inca Empire, for the Andean vision.
Other historians emphasize their historical figure and they spread to consider it like one of the main figures in the development of the before Columbus civilizations, I eat for example he/she would say of him the British historian Sir Clement Markham: "Him bigger man that the aboriginal race of America has taken place"; other historians and columnists compare its figure with that of an American Charlemagne, making reference to the expansion of the Inca State and the consolidation of the empire that it achieved; and even to that of Solón, emphasizing legislator's gifts and statesman that it is counted had Pachacútec.
"With their measures he/she gave geographical and idiomatic unit, beginning the uniformity that allowed the formation of current" Peru later. Taken of "History of Tahuantinsuyo", historian María Rostworowski.
THE INCA OF THE INCAN EMPIRE
AMARU INKA YUPANKI - Inca AMARU YUPANQUI - Sovereign Sagacious Supreme Court.
PANACA: CAPAC AYLLU, DYNASTY:
Source: http://incasdeltahuantinsuyo.blogspot.com/2008/07/amaru - Inca-yupanqui -1478.html
THE INCA OF THE INCAN EMPIRE
TUPAQ YUPANKI - TÚPAC YUPANQUI - TUPAQ INKA YUPANKI - Luminous and Memorable.
PERIOD: 1471-1493, PANACA: CAPAC AYLLU, DYNASTY: HANAN
Túpac Yupanqui (Tupaq Inka Yupanki) was the tenth Inca governor. Successor of Pachacútec assumed the co-reign to the 16 years, and approximately at the 30, when his father died absolute position of the power it was made. During their co-government and their government used most of his time in warlike campaigns of conquest. They called it the traveling" "Inca, for their long absences outside of Cusco, inclusive there is a theory that one of their marine expeditions arrived to the Polynesian, in Oceania.
He/she took like main wife to their paternal sister Ocllo Suckles. He/she died in Chincheros, it is said that poisoned by their wife Chuqui Ocllo.
Pachacútec chose Amaru Inca initially Yupanqui like successor, but this was very peaceful and kind, they called it "the Good" one, it is counted that when they sent (practically they forced) it to combat against Guarani it was defeated. Such attitudes made change opinion to Pachacútec naming their son: Túpac Yupanqui like their successor. When Pachacútec was already very old it allowed him/her to almost assume all the power (co-government).
For the East, he/she went to Chinchaysuyo to annex more ethnoses. For the north it conquered Chachapoyas, Huambos and Guayacondos. He/she faced the Empire Chimú that for their geography and their capital walled city: Chan Chan Túpac went Before this situation Yupanqui it elaborated a good strategy: to dry the river Moche, main supplier of water for Chan Chan. As the city it is amid the desert it didn't take many days in announcing the rendition.
After this first expedition it returned to Cusco with a loaded booty. He/she rested there two years, and at once it left again for the north annexing more ethnoses and defeating others that it would not annex them for not being of interest for their "savagery." In the proximities of I Remove it built the strength of Quinche, where later on some believe that their son would have been born Huayna Cápac.
When returning to Cusco after 4 years, he/she was tempted to command another conquest campaign in the North, in Gulf of Guayaquil, where it defeated Puná and Paches.
For the south, their look went to the valley of Cañete and the dominion of Huarco. Ally with the powerful chinchas, believed that his victory would be safe but the facts would demonstrate him/her the opposite. Their campaign for those lands, the most arduous that must fight in their life and that it served him/her a lot in their development as warrior, he/she took him/her near five years. For this reason he/she decided to appeal to other resources to get so hefty people's definitive defeat. Indeed, it sent emissaries to point out to the leaders of the region (headed by a warring fierce woman) that both nations would reach an alliance with the purpose of mutual I benefit between both, being that those of Huarco would constantly contribute foods and products to the Empire while the Inca would respect their autonomy. Before this, big celebrations would be given beginning and in full party young Túpac's soldiers Yupanqui would enter against the main positions defensives to take them. This would get it in all the havens, I save in the strength of Ungará.
Here the fight became harder and it cost many lives taking it. Finally, being surrounded and desirous of saving their bodies of the imperial prince's fury, the survivors rushed from the high of the strength in a jump that years later famous Cahuide would emulate before the Spaniards. To their arrival to the place, Túpac Yupanqui, congested for he/she will go her, it ordered all the prisoners to be executed and hung of those walls like punishment to all the towns that followed their example.
Theory of a visit to the Polynesian
Starting from the chronicles carried out by Spanish columnists Pedro Sarmiento of Gamboa, Martin of Murúa and Miguel Hair Valboa during the conquest; they picked up a story on that, Túpac Yupanqui, being in the north (in the islands Puná) coast would have had knowledge of some distant islands, deciding to go after them. Enlisted a great fleet of rafts, it would have weighed anchor with 20,000 men, arriving at some called islands Ninachumbi and Auachumbi; some historians would postulate as hypothesis that these islands would be true and they would be located in the Polynesian.
This chronicle gave cause, to the historian José Antonio of the Bust, for the formulation of a theory on that those two islands would be Mangareva and Nui Shaves, being based on thirty tests that it considers to have discovered, among them the fact that in Mangareva a legend exists on a king Obstructs that came of the east in rafts with candles, bringing goldwork, ceramic and textilería and of the one that until today a dance exists. A similar story would exist in the islands Marquises. Also, he/she adds that Ahu Vinapu, in Nui Shaves, it is built in similar form to the Incan constructions of Cusco, and that the king Obstructs in Nui it Shaves he would have taken the name of Mahuna-you Ra'á, translated as "son of the sun" based on a legend it shaves nui. it returned to the two years bringing I get black people, brass seats, hides and jaws of horses that were conserved in the strength of Sacsayhuamán. This hypothesis is supported by the voyage that made the Norwegian browser Thor Heyerdahl, denominated Kon-tiki in honor to the god of the Inca, Wiracocha, the creator of the universe, because Kon-tiki is an invocation of the same one.
"and walking Inga Collides Yupanqui conquering the coast of Blanket and the island of Puná and Túmbez, some merchants that had come for the sea contributed there of toward the west in rafts, navigating to the candle. Of which it was informed of the earth of where they came that were some islands, calls an Auachumbi and another Niñachumbi where there were a lot of people and gold. And like it Collides Inga era of spirits and high thoughts and he/she was not satisfied with what had conquered in earth, it determined to tempt the happy happiness that he/she helped him/her for the sea. After peeking of how Túpac Yupanqui you whole of the existence of some islands auachumbi and ninachumbi, this warned and confirmed by a called merchant Autarqui. It was determined to go there. And it stops this he/she made a numerous quantity of rafts in that it embarked more than twenty thousand chosen soldiers. It navigated Inga it Collides and it was and he/she discovered the islands Auachumbi and Niñachumbi, and it returned of there, of where he/she brought people black and a lot of gold and a brass seat and a hide and horse jaws. I make instance in this, because to those that supieren they will find something of Indies a strange and difficult case of believing." Pedro Sarmiento of Gamboa
Expansion of the Inca empire.In 1471, with the death of Pachacútec, Túpac Yupanqui is made approximately from the throne to its 30 years. In desires of continuing the expansion of the empire directed a campaign in Antisuyo (wild region). With an army divided in 3 (one of them commanded by their brother Amaro Yupanqui), they annexed to the tribes: Opotari, Manú and Yanasimi.
Conquests to the south of the empire
During their reign, he/she was carried out an expedition that began traveling the plateau of Collao, Cochabamba and Tucumán. Of Ponds he/she went to the south and it conquered to the diaguitas of the traverse valleys and it leaves of the picunches (group northern mapuche) that inhabited the Valley of Chile (the current valley of Aconcagua or the valley of Mapocho) and some districts located to his south, noticing this way the limits of the Inca Empire, in an area that conventionally the historians and the archaeology extend to the river Maule. He/she took the one on the way to return for the coast going by Pike, Huantajaya, Ariacca, Tácana and in Sama he/she took direction toward Cusco.
The columnist Pedro Cieza of expressed León that: He/she "walked for the whole county of Collao until leaving her, he/she sent their messengers to all the nations of the Ponds and Carangas and more people that there are in those lands. Of her, some they came him/her to serve and others to give them war... Going victorious ahead of the Ponds, it crossed many lands or counties and big uninhabited of snow until it arrived to what we call Chile and it dominated and it conquered all those lands, in which say they arrived to the river Maule. In that of Chile, he/she made some buildings and tributáronle of those districts much gold in tejuelos. He/she left governors and mitimaes and, position in order what had won, returned to Cusco."
The Inca called promaucaes or purumaucas or purum aucca, to the populations that were not subjected to their empire. The Inca subjected some towns of the Valley of Chile who paid them tributes.
Inca Garcilaso de la Vega in their book Real Comments of the Inca and Spanish Alonso of Ercilla in the epic poem The Araucanian and other columnists, they relate the Inca expedition toward the river Maule and their encounter with the promaucaes. This event is known as Battle of Maule. in this campaign to the south got rid a war among 20.000 Inca of Yupanqui and 20.000 mapuches, to the south of Maule. The subgrupo well-known picunche as promaucaes for the Spaniards, informed of the coming of the Inca Antalli, Pincu and Cauqui allied with the subgrupos. The Inca sent parliamentarians so that they recognize Túpac Yupanqui like sovereign.
The purumaucas decided to give battle and they faced for three days with the Inca. During the confrontation there were many deads in both decrees and any conquering army. To the fourth day they decided not to face. The purumaucas retired of the battle field singing victory. The Inca evaluated to pursue them to continue with the battle or what you/they had already conquered to assure.
Finally they decide not to continue the conquest, but strengthening their positions, to administer the conquered territories and to improve the agriculture of their new vassals so that their neighbors even not conquered they noticed their progress. The vassal new towns accepted of good grade the domain and they obtained advantages of him.
...the battle lasted the whole day without being recognized advantage in that there were many deads and wounded...The fourth day...they didn't leave their lodgings...Purumaucas...they returned to their lands, singing victory...the Inca...they solved in to return to what you/they had livestock and to point out the river Maulli for term of their Empire and not to pass ahead in their conquest until having new order of their Inca King Yupanqui...The Inca sent them to send that doesn't conquer newer lands, but rather assists with much care in to cultivate and those that had won to benefit... Inca Garcilaso De La Vega. Real Comments. Second part. Book VII. Chapters 18,19,20
The led potent Inca king, in all the antarctic regions, it was a gentleman in fond end, to see and to conquer new nations...*The promaucaes of Maule that knew, the vain intent of the vain Inca, to the and I happen and five pesetas encounter came out them, not less in good order that lusty; and the things of luck happened that arriving these people to the hands, infinite orejones died, losing the field and all the banners. *... The Inca that the force knew that it is locked in the untamable county, and how little to the arms they would win, carried out the the begun war; seen the one missed intent that they brought, abandoning the won earth, they returned to the towns that left, where for some time they rested. Alonso of Ercilla. The Araucanian. I Sing I.
Expeditions to the south of Maule
Data contributed by Spanish chronicles, such as the Report of Miguel of Olaverría or that of the father Anello Olive in its History of Peru (published in a translation to French) indicates that the expansion would have arrived more to the south, or that later on he/she would have taken place a hypothetical last expansion or invasion more to the south to the river Biobío. Miguel of expressed Olaverría that "conquered and subjetaron to all the Indians that it prepares from the Serene horn the great river of Biobio like oy leaves and aver arrived until the statement laughs for the strong ones that made in the hill of the Clear River, where they put and they had frontier to the Indians of the state with those who had many battles" and the father Anello expressed Olive that: It subjected until the valley of Arauco, where the winter passed, after having built some strong ones. It subjected the counties of Chillhue next and of Chillcaras. However, in this aspect there are discussions: as for example that Chillhue and Chillcaras, are not historical real names, or that there is more than a river Clear call in Chile.
A minority point of view that is sustained by the historian José Antonio of the Bust in their book Túpac Yupanqui, postulates that the Inca advanced beyond Maule and Biobío, reaching until the Channel of Chacao, observing from the bank the Island of Chiloé, the "end of the world" and, without interest to conquer those lands, he returned to the government of Tahuantinsuyo, after his long absence.
In Chincheros, Chuqui Ocllo, one of Túpac's wives Yupanqui convinced him that its son Cápac Huari happened him, however Túpac Yupanqui changed opinion opting for Titu Cusi Yupanqui (Huayna Cápac). This provoked the Ocllo will go in Chuqui who poisoned Túpac approximately Yupanqui in 1493.
Later on in 1532, when the army of Atahualpa took the city of Cusco, the ethnoses that conformed its army still kept an immense resentment to Túpac Yupanqui to have conquered them. These ethnoses burned their mummy in low Cusco the control of Quisquis.
THE INCA OF THE INCAN EMPIRE
WAYNA QHAPAQ - HUAYNA CAPAC - Powerful Waiter.
PERIOD: 1493-1527, PANACA: TUMIPANPA PANACA, DYNASTY: HANAN
Huayna Cápac (Quechua: Wayna Qhapaq, young" "king) it was the eleventh and penultimate ruler of the incanato.
It was the first emperor Inca (historical) non cusqueño, since he/she was born in Ecuadorian territory, in the current city of Cuenca (Tumibamba in that then), while their father, the then emperor Túpac Yupanqui, was of military campaign in the current austro of Ecuador. To their early age he/she had to confront two serious problems in their ascension to the throne. The first because of the seraglio intrigues, properly of the colla Chuqui Ocllo that sought the throne for their son, Capac Huari that put an end to the plotter's death and the youth's capture. Then he/she would be awarded a Regent (a practice already used in the past) so that it collaborates with him in their formation like Inca emperor. However, soon it was discovered a trap for young Huayna Capac, outlined by their Regent and their first-born who were about escaping but without more success, being executed soon thanks to their uncle's opportune arrival Huaman Achachi.
With such an upset beginning the government of the new Inca began that basically had to dedicate all his efforts to consolidate the lands conquered by his father and to suffocate the revolts of turbulent counties. For this, it assumed the political control and religious of the Empire, displacing Apo Chalco Yupanqui, effective Villac Umo. For the first time in the imperial time they concentrated all the powers on a single person. However, almost at the end of their life his relative, Cusi names Túpac Yupanqui, as Supreme new Priest of the Sun (seemingly this is Villac Umo that crowns Inca Cripple and that it would second it in their reconquest wars as skilled strategist).
Their campaigns had the tendency to always go toward the north. On one hand, the wild (residents and the nature in yes) hard resistance blocked them the road toward the east, while for the south and all overdraft was already for the west. This way, the only road possible era the north, virtually unexplored and in turn highly unstable given area the great militancy of their natural ones.
Born in Tomebamba (in current Cuenca, to the south of Ecuador), their first years they were wrapped in a series of very particular facts.
Due to the Incan right, he/she had to be recognized as auqui (prince) by the real panacas of Cusco to be able to be Inca Sapa. To complete this indispensable requirement, Túpac Yupanqui that was in the conquest of I Remove, he/she moved with the royal family to Cusco. It is said that to the turn of both Pachacútec it continued with life and it left to their encounter to know their grandson. It seems that the boy caused so good impression to the old one and hence this asked the minor to direct the load from the Incan army to the strength of Sacsayhuamán, a ritual act. It is counted that the prince made the task that Pachacútec transformed it into its favorite one so well and it laid the foundation it its future rise like Inca.
Túpac Yupanqui would have named as its successor to Capac Huari, but finally he/she would have opted for Huayna Capac provoking this way the anger of Chuqui Ocllo, mother of Capac Huari. This fact seems to have been the explosive that impelled Chuqui Ocllo to poison Túpac Yupanqui. Later this declared that Túpac Inca had changed opinion newly when it was moribund and with the lost reason.
Before this fact, Huaman Achachi, a faithful general to Túpac Yupanqui (and I mate his) hid Huayna Capac and after many cases and the energetic protest of Ocllo (mother of Huayna Capac) Suckles they condemned Chuqui Ocllo and its accomplices to the death penalty. As for small Capac Huari, was not harmed any due to its innocence. However, it banished it to a remote place under the surveillance of people of the trust of Huaman Achachi.
Huayna Cápac, already declared successor of Túpac Yupanqui, had like Regent to its uncle Apo Huallpaya until it reaches its age majority. Later Apo Huallpaya proposed to its son to the throne arguing that Huayna Cápac was unable for the position, Huamán Achachi knew that also Apo Huallpaya had intentions of killing the young king. Apo Huallpaya and their son were sentenced to death by betrayal
Among first o'clock one has their incursion to the Kingdom of the chachapoyas that you/they had rebelled to the imperial power taking advantage of Inca Túpac's death. The Inca was in the funeral of his mother when he had news of the lift and it prepared to go immediately to the region, not without before to go by historically bound towns to the origin of the Empire, as that of the soras and that of the lucanas, where it was very well received. Later march to Jauja, where it would impart wise justice, achieving regional a lot of fame in spite of their short age. After having been in Yauyos, he/she rests in Cajamarca and he/she gets ready for the long fight.
The first crashes were favorable to the chachapoyas who make go back several times to the imperial army. However, the Incan politics of renovating the troops gave its fruits, since a new wave of fresh people ended up squashing to the out but heroic chachapoyas who offered unconditional peace. He/she returns to Cusco and he/she takes charge of visiting the south end of the Empire (Tucumán, Argentina and the counties of Contisuyo), it stops then to return to the capital and of there to undertake a quick campaign to Cajamarca, arriving to the wild region of Bracamoros, although it was repelled by the natural ones and for the geographical and climatic conditions of the region.
Redone of their encounter with the bracamoros, he/she went to the region of the avocados that you/they had given death to the ambassadors that their father left. Informed of the arrival of the Inca, spies sent disguised of lumberjacks, however, the trick was discovered and the spies received punishment more than severe: the more ones ended up murdered, while some returned with noses and cut ears, while others with the emptied eyes. The avocados, before this, surrendered. Finally it will arrive to I Remove, previous demurrage in their native Tumibamba (today Cuenca), and then it will undertake the return trip to Cusco, not without before to give permission so that constructions of palatine type can rise in the capital Ecuadorian today.
Their visits to the sanctuary of Pachacámac were constant and several times they were to see the luck that would run in an eventual campaign, as which developed for the north coast until you Knock down.
Rebellions close to I Remove and annexation of the Grass (South of Colombia)
For their visit to the coast undertook march heading for the sanctuary of Pachacámac. For this it traveled the towns of the soras and lucanas, as well as the region of the belligerent huancas until arriving to the route of Huarochirí, for which descended until the Limean valley.
Arrived at the Sanctuary, he/she received good predictions about their present campaign and the later one, for what went to you Knock down, going by the territory that outside of Great Chimú. For this he/she took several years, since to their step it was building channels and affirming cultivation lands. Arrived to the northern region, it was informed of the cacique's rebelliousness you Knock down it, of the Island Puná, and he/she went toward there. The cacique consulted neighboring towns for help, but as all they had already undergone the Inca, it opted for an astute exit. He/she faked passivity before the Inca and when their troops retired in rafts, it attacked in half and in the affray they fell many orejones. Huayna Capac, informed of it, it mounted in fury and him same it directed the load on the punaeños, conquering them after hard fight.
Campaign to Collasuyo
Later, he/she sent their uncle Huaman Achachi (who saved him of the plot during their childhood) to visit the conquered new regions of the north, while he went to Collasuyo. Crossing Collao, it arrived to the region of the ponds and of there, for the Step of Huasco, it arrived in Chile. Once there, it retired the rulers left by their father and it put in their place to the descendants of the regional old commanders, winning the favor of the whole region. Finally he/she returned to Cusco for Coquimbo, Copiapó, Atacama and again Collasuyo. However, being in Cochabamba, he/she obtained worrying news of Chinchaysuyo.Huaina Cápac went to Central Chile in person with a powerful army, subjecting sefiitivamente of the valleys from the River Aconcagua to the River Cachapoal.
Huacas and Pucarás in Collasuyo
Attributable to this king it would be the series of existent Pucará in Aconcagua, Mapocho and Maipo; especially Chena, Narrowness and Merchacas. On the other hand the constructions of Catemu and Hill Mauco, they could belong to the last tract of the reign of Inga it Collides Yupanqui, when the river Aconcagua constituted the southern frontier of the empire.
Expansion toward the south in Collasuyo
The expansion toward the south Cápac was continued by Huaina that the whole annexed territory traveled, especially Quillota, Aconcagua and Mapocho. In the Valley of Chile invistió like Curaca (their representative) to the local bosses Michimalonco and Tangalonco, leaving in a second plan to the Inca governor Quilicanta. this Inca probably organized definitively the extraction of the tribute in gold of Marga Marga that you/they should send Cuzco annually the curaca of Aconcagua, and the division of the political dominion of the valley in two halves: fence superior and inferior, being this last subordinate at the first.
The cayambis and the caranguis had tried to ignore the imperial power and they got up against the Inca. Huayna Capac picked up troops in the region of the collas and he/she went with them to the capital to make a last recruitment. Fact this, named general to Auqui he/she Takes (Hanan Cusco) and to Michi (Hurin Cusco).
Indications of decadence
Preparations for the campaign to the other end of the Empire, he/she went with the most select in their troops, having among them the collaboration of two of their children: Ninan Cuyuchi, a skilled warrior, and a youth but experienced Atahualpa. In Cusco they would be Huascar and the Inca small Cripple and Inca Paullu.
Arrived to their native and distant Tumibamba, the palace rose Mullu Court, in which a statue of its mother's gold would be located Ocllo he/she Suckles that would be left under the care of the nation cañari. The House of the Sun was also built and that of Ticci Viracocha Pachacama. Finally it would arrive to I Remove, from where it would fire emissaries to order the peaceful subjection of the rebels, obtaining a hostile answer. It is here that, gathered the High Control, decides to throw a campaign to the region of the Grass (Pats Awá or "people scorpion"), for that which captains of Collasuyo who affirmed to be the most capable to combat in regions like that is designated.
Seemingly, the statement was certain, since the victory was extremely simple. Immediately, to the arrival of the night he/she prepared a celebration among the triumphant soldiers and it was in that moment that the true army of the Grass fell on the confident Inca, destroying them almost completely. The few ones that saved the life left refolding until the watch of Orejones (that it had been straggler) was able to defend the retreat. It is said that here they shone so much Ninan Cuyochi as Atahualpa.
Expert of the facts, Huayna Capac decided to send this time to the thick of its army, the one which without problems domino the situation and it produced great death toll among the Grass, not surviving neither women neither children. Since it was rainy season, all were not refolded Tumibamba without before to have left troops and representatives in the region.
Previous call of reinforcements, prepared the attack to the region of the caranguis. The rendition of the first strength was achieved with many difficulties. Followed act, the look went to the main haven of the caranguis, in the middle of heart of its domains that was not defended alone for the natural ones, but also for otabalos and cayambis that you/they lent them support. Exactly to avoid more adhesions to these, Huayna Capac ordered its main bosses to go for the surroundings announcing that the Inca will take reprisals against the nation that supported in a way or another to the besieged ones.
Compliment the one made, the first attack rushed to the strength. A sound failure would shake the deepest foundations in the Empire in yes. He/she took place, for the first time in the history, the fall of the Inca. Their bunk, supported by Orejones, it was attacked by the cayambis and the cusqueños they gave, provoking that the Inca impacts difficultly against the floor. The bewilderment was total and alone it could save the life Huayna Capac when being protected by 3 of its faithfulest captains. Finally, Orejones would also support and they were able to put safe to the Inca.
What continued to these facts is remarkable since the Inca decided to demonstrate his anger toward his captains and to his noble Orejones through several actions, as to diminish them the portions of food or not to invite them to the parties in the camp. These, to the one turn relegated openly, they took the image of the Sun and they went to Cusco, being intercepted by messengers of the Inca, to which proceeded to capture. A last correspondent received for answer: "say to Inga that their little attachment and the hunger that it hurries us make us leave to Cusco."
Finally, Huayna Capac goes to Orejones in person and it recriminates them its attitude. Orejones in all ways continues their march and, Huayna Capac in unusual act, asks him to retire its mother's statue that was in the temple, so that they put it in front of the deserters. Fact this, an Indian cañari comes out to the road and, making as if it was possessed by the spirit of Coya, it convinces them of staying. Orejones answers to the Inca: We "want more being vassals desfavorecidos than not children inovedientes." The Inca appealed to this device to save time and to organize a banquet to entertain his captains.
This fact is explained by an Andean ingrained habit, based on the reciprocity: everything Mr. Andean he/she should offer to their subject gifts and favors in exchange for their work, and Huayna Capac he/she was leaving aside this obligation towards their armies that were formed by small several armies to the control of gentlemen of ethnic diverse groups. These formed the heart of Tahuantinsuyo. The Inca had to offer them the accustomed ceremonies of petition of favors, to achieve that his armies returned to his control, before beginning another attack.
The attack to the strength would be renewed with participation of Orejones' that they fought so well that they were able to win 4 of the 5 walls of the same one. However, the fall of the brother of the Inca, Auqui Takes, he/she forced to an I restate of the situation. Same Huayna Capac would head the actions.
Resolved to culminate that war, he/she starts to the front of a division. The other one would be commanded by general Michi, of Hurin Cusco (one of Orejones), and the last would be composed by the soldiers of Chinchaysuyo. These two would be taken charge of attacking for the flanks, by way of surprise, while the main division would be directed by the own Inca and it would be the one that must take the biggest weight in the war.
The battle would last several days and, to the end of a time, the Inca would give the retreat order. Their troops followed it and after them the caranguis went that left of the strength with the desire of squashing the Inca definitively. Fair in that moment, the troops that should flank the strength came out of their respective hiding places and the three columns attacked the strength in such a way that you/they achieved it to win completely. The reprisals were, to the style of the Inca, very severe. As the historian Raúl Clubs Barrenechea says, Huayna Capac "wanted to be so feared the Indians" to dream him/her at night.
As symbolic fact, one can say that I Maim Inca it recognized in the tactics that Hernando used Pizarro against him in the battle of Ollantaytambo the one that its father used before many years in the earth of the caranguis. Knowing the steps well to continue, it could defend the strength well and to advance the movements of the corajudo Spanish captain.
However, the emperor would fall prey of a strange illness all of a sudden. To say of Garcilaso, the Inca it predicted the arrival of mysterious travelers that you/they would arrive via marine (I relate that shows similarity with the history chimú arrival of Naylamp in the north Peruvian coast). The certain thing is that the Inca arrived that is of the ships that were exploring the coast and that he died without obtaining a good answer about the identity of the travelers. Finally, he/she also died without leaving a clear indication on their succession. The one designated, somehow, ended up being Ninan Cuyochi, a bastard son with great handling of the weapons, but that he/she would also die as their father. In the face of the graveness of the situation, the figure of the son of second Coya (the first didn't end up giving succession to the Inca), Inca Huascar, arises who would take charge of governing to the Empire next years.
The figure of Huayna Capac you can locate in the list of the big rulers of the Empire, next to their father and to their grandfather, while their son Inca Huascar would represent the decadence. However, far from so much happiness, the certain thing is that the Empire had already begun to crack moments before beginning the Inca youth's government. Their regent's attack, as well as the seraglio intrigues, going by the rise of the military classes and finishing in the relajamiento of the nobility (the poor no longer worked alone for the Inca and the Sun, but rather they should also work for the families of those that had been Inca), they were samples that something was already bad in an Empire that quick desmesuradamente had grown. Although Huayna Capac was very dear for all, it made many errors. Perhaps the most serious has been the rise of their native city, Tumibamba and the one of I Remove that finished being one of the strongest points for the rivalry among both cities when arriving the reign of Inca Huascar. However, in spite of their relajamiento and to their attachment for the drink and the women, it cannot refuse that maintained compactly together to the Empire (to say of a Spanish conqueror, "if the earth non huviera been divided, if Guaynacaba not dead huviera, we could not enter her neither to win") product of a great capacity of leadership, great will and an admirable one I hurtle.
THE INCA OF THE INCAN EMPIRE
WASKAR - HUASCAR - Chain of Gold.
PERIOD: 1527-1532, PANACA: HATUN AYLLU, DYNASTY: HANAN
Huáscar was the twelfth Inca emperor, one of the two hundred children of blood of Huayna Cápac and one of the third with access to the throne.
The official versions say that Huayna Cápac and its noted successor (Ninan Cuyuchi) already died in 1527 of pock whose epidemic began to sprout for the North of the empire product of the arrival of the Spanish conquerors. Before this fact, to choose Inca new Sapa became difficult.
Finally they opted for Huáscar because this had been named as incap rantin (lieutenant governor) of Cusco by same Huayna Cápac.
Many sought the throne, among them their brother Atahualpa who would finish taking off it for the weapons in 1532, capturing it and later on already putting an end to their life being captive of Francisco Pizarro.
Huáscar had been born in Huascarpata, and of there its name. It was designated as successor by the orejones (noblemen) of Cusco, but not for their own father who died next to their legitimate successor. In the decision taken by the orejones he/she had influence the experience that had Huáscar in governing an important city like it was Cuzco.
During their government's beginning, all they recognized it like Inca Sharkskin, naming their brother Atahualpa incap rantin (lieutenant governor) of I Remove and their influence area. This application was accepted by Huáscar.
Many were those that sought the throne of Huáscar, among them their brother Cusi Atauche, who with the general help of two his siblings attacked to the army of Huáscar. This intent failure and Cusi Atauchi was sentenced to death by betrayal.
Before these facts Huáscar began to distrust of all, in occasions it killed suspects without having overwhelming tests. Perhaps inclusive it suffered of schizophrenia.
Guerra against Atahualpa
Their brother Atahualpa had the ambition of taking possession of the Inca empire, for that which organized a numerous army conformed by northern resentful ethnoses with the cusqueños for the slaughters that had carried out Huayna Cápac and Túpac Yupanqui when they conquered those places.
The first warlike actions began when Atahualpa disobeyed the order of Huáscar of going to Cusco.
The first battle won it Huáscar with an army commanded by its brother and called general Atoc.
Atahualpa took advantage of a truce (in crop time it is supposed that no Andean ethnos should carry out warlike campaigns) and he/she took some northern cities. Little by little it arrived in almost unbeaten Cusco and it defeated Huáscar finally.
Once taken Cusco, Atahualpa tried to erase each rake percibible of Huáscar killing its relatives, servants and sympathetic. And the northern ethnoses that conformed the army of Atahualpa tried to erase all rake of Huayna Cápac and Túpac Yupanqui of the one who inclusive burned their mummy.
THE INCA OF THE INCAN EMPIRE
ATAWALLPA - ATAHUALPA - Guerrero Brave
PERIOD: 1532-1533, PANACA: HATUN AYLLU, DYNASTY: HANAN
Atahualpa (Quechua: Tie-wallpa 'rooster') it was the thirteenth Inca ruler, and although he/she had successors named by the Spaniards it is considered as the last Incan emperor. He/she was born in 1500; however, the place of its birth is even uncertain.
When Huáscar was crowned in Cuzco like emperor caused him/her a lot of concern his brother's sympathy with the army, reason for which ordered him/her that he showed up in Cuzco. Atahualpa, convinced by their generals that if he/she went it would be died, he/she decided to organize a northern army and Inca was declared in the city of I Remove. This way beginning was given to the Inca famous civil war.
It was able to conquer Huáscar in 1532 in Quipaypan, near Cuzco, after that which Atahualpa was proclaimed Inca or emperor, after having won the war he/she went immediately to Cajamarca to know the Spaniards, after a Spanish unexpected attack prisoner was made by Francisco Pizarro. In prison it maintained some privileges: he/she was allowed to continue administering the empire, he/she learned how to read and to write, it also maintained a friendly relationship with Francisco Pizarro. To the few months it was accused of betrayal by the Spaniards, they accused him of hiding a treasure, conspiracy against the Spanish crown and of killing Huáscar. For their rescue it was forced to pay two rooms full with silver and one of gold, besides women, among them, their wife Cuxirimay Ocllo who was brought from Cuzco and surrendered as slave to Francisco Pizarro. Although it fulfilled their offer, it was executed in all ways. He/she chose to be hung after being baptized like I christen; the other option was to die burnt if it was not baptized.
Some doubts exist on the place of origin of Atahualpa. Conquering Pedro Cieza of León assured in one of its chronicles to have discovered for the streets of Cuzco the origin of Atahualpa, according to him the orejones (noblemen) cuzqueños told him/her that Atahualpa was bigger than Huáscar and also cuzqueño as him. Most of chronic as those of Santa Cruz Pachacuti and Bernabé Cobo assures that Atahualpa was born in Cuzco, while they are few those that affirm an origin quiteño, among other at the end of the XVI century Diego Wolf of Flat (born in 1536 of a supposed sister of Atahualpa), and in the XVII century Pedro of Market and Hyacinth Collahuaso. The Inca cuzqueño Garcilaso de la Vega is the main columnist that presents this statement.
Sources exist, in their majority written at the end of s. XVI and half-filled of the XVII one that you/they support their birth in Tahuatinsuyu. The fact that Túpac Yupanqui Huayna has been born in Vilcashuamán and its son Capác in Tomebamba, it seems to indicate that Atahualpa very well could have been born in I Remove, like part of an expansionary politics of the Empire and like a way to reinforce a conquest of political-religious (Hugo Burgos Guevara, Guamán, the Puma and Amaru) nature. Pitifully, when lacking the writing Inca, the real origin of Atahualpa will never be known, although it seems to be at the moment irrelevant.
Other columnists relate that he/she lived in I Remove more than 10 years next to their father Huayna Cápac, and that their mother was the princess quiteña Paccha, last Shyri of the dynasty of Sushysela (Duchicela), her brother Ninan Cuyuchi, and the Inca (with their more influential ones general) army.
In that that yes most of the chronicles of the time coincides it is that Atahualpa was with its father in Cuzco during its childhood and youth, receiving in this city the education that corresponded him/her in its nobleman condition.
The Ecuadorian historians have an opinion it divides on the birthplace of Atahualpa, some say that it was in I Remove and others in Cuzco.
The Peruvian historians have the opinion of an origin cuzqueño.
When Atahualpa was 16 years of age old, its father Huayna Cápac decided to leave Cuzco and to go with him and with its brother Ninan Cuyuchi toward I Remove to the control of a great army, leaving its son Huáscar like incap rantin (lieutenant governor) of Cuzco.
In I Remove, Huayna Cápac took charge to Atahualpa the control of a military campaign to subject to the punaneños (of Gulf of Guayaquil) who refused to pay its tributes.It was in this permanency of more than 10 years next to their father and to skilled general as Chalcuchímac and Quisquis that Atahualpa learned the art of the administration and the government; the columnists described it intellectually as somebody of "alive reasonings and with a lot of authority."
There they remained together for more than 10 years suffocating rebellions or conquering new lands. In 1525 Huayna Cápac died in I Remove of a strange illness, and the same thing happened to Ninan Cuyuchi but in Tomebamba. The pock epidemic also arrived in Cuzco and it killed at two of the four correinantes of Cuzco, making that Huáscar is the favorite of the cuzqueños to assume the government.
After being named Inca emperor by the noble cuzqueños Huáscar it was victim of a bankrupt coup d'etat. This action made that the distrust reigned in Huáscar, and this distrust in turn made that the dislike of the Inca noblemen reigned against Huáscar.
Worried by the narrow relationship of Atahualpa and the northern powerful army, Huáscar ordered him/her that he/she came to Cuzco, Atahualpa was convinced by the northern generals of not going since if he/she made it it would be executed. It is not known with certainty if it was for own protection or for ambition, but Atahualpa it organized armies so that they took Cuzco and they brought I get Huáscar.
Finished the war Huáscar prisoner was taken by general Quisquis and Chalcuchimac. It was mistreated and brought barefoot toward Atahualpa. In 1533, when Atahualpa prisoner was, it ordered its execution fearing that the Spaniards returned him/her the throne, that is to say that they never arrived to it turns the faces since the war began.
It can understand each other that Atahualpa prisoner maintained certain control on the empire, because it ordered to execute Huáscar and that he/she is brought its had skull of gold to be used as vessel. Such an act served as excuse to accuse him of fratricide that that, added to idolatry positions, adultery and other, it meant him/her a sentence of death for incineration.
The incineration pain was substituted him/her by that of ahorcamiento, after being baptized under the Catholic rite. Before, when being captured, it had tossed to the floor a Bible, because he/she could not listen in her the "word of God", like a priest announced.
The embassy of Hernando of Soto
Finished the war, Atahualpa went quickly toward Cajamarca, where the Spaniards waited for it to who wanted to know. When Atahualpa was in The bathrooms of the Inca, to half league of Cajamarca, Francisco Pizarro sent to Hernando of Soto with 20 horsemen and an interpreter toward the Inca to tell him/her that they were waiting for it in Cajamarca. There, Atahualpa surprised to the Spanish embassy, since as they count, Atahualpa never got scared of the horses that were brought near so much that they blew in its face, however some soldiers yes they were frightened and they were punished severely hence. Atahualpa confirmed that he/she would go to Cajamarca the following day.
Taking of Cajamarca
The following day the Spaniards hid in the Inca main buildings of the Square cajamarqueña and they waited anxious. Some hours later saw the phenomenal entrance of Atahualpa, with a parade of 30.000 men who were so confident that they were dismantled. When entering to the square only Spanish that came out to the encounter it was the friar Vicente of Valverde who through the interpreter Felipillo, although other sources say that it was Maritinillo or both, Valverde made the Requirement where he was ordered to accept the Christianity like true religion and to undergo the king's authority Carlos I of Spain and to Pope Clemente VII. Followed act gave him/her a misario and a ring as gift, Atahualpa when seeing that they lacked meaning for him he/she threw them to the floor; this action caused indignation in the Spaniards who immediately broke the silence when shooting its artillery and rifles. The citizens that loaded the one walk of Atahualpa they were also killed without pity, when some fell they were replaced immediately. When seeing this situation one of the conquerors he/she tried to kill the Inca with a knife, but Francisco Pizarro it impeded it taking a short cut it (inclusive he/she injured the hand when making it) and it ordered that "nobody plays the Inca." The slaughter was complete, more than 20.000 Inca soldiers died, and the gentleman of Chincha, intimate friend of Atahualpa was also murdered.
As a result Atahualpa was captured in a palace of Cajamarca; according to Guaman Poma of Ayala was submerged in a depression time because they removed to its coya (woman), its wealth and its Kingdom. It counts that he/she cried, he/she didn't eat a lot and he/she slept a little. In prison Atahualpa organized to backs of the Spaniards two armies, one under the control of Chalcuchímac so that went to Cajamarca to liberate it and the other first floor the control of Quisquis so that takes Cuzco and it eliminated any vestige of Huáscar. Being prisoner friend of Pizarro was made, and he/she had him/her admiration to Hernando Pizarro, of who said he/she was a great gentleman. It also played a lot "Taptana", a game of Inca table that some historians confused with the chess. According to chronic, he/she learned Castilian in twenty days.
In prison, Atahualpa offered in exchange for its liberation to fill two silver rooms and one of gold "up to where it reached its hand", the Spaniards accepted and immediately the order was sent to the whole Inca empire that sends the biggest quantity possible of gold and silver toward Cajamarca. After completing their part the Spaniards they sentenced him to death for idolatry, fratricide, polygamy, incest and they accused him of hiding a treasure.
They were granted the last two options: to be baptized as Christian and then hung or to be burnt lives. When choosing the first option it was baptized with Francisco's Christian name. It is believed that Francisco Pizarro their death cried. (Pedro Pizarro narrates in its chronicle: "I saw the Marquis" cry).
It was executed July 26 of 1533. The news of its death originated a great anarchy, many ethnoses dominated by the Inca rebelled and they tried to recover its independence.
It was buried later in the church of Cajamarca but some days their cadaver it disappeared uncannily; their citizens probably rescued him to mummify it and to bury him together with their ancestors.
After their death, many Inca in favor of Huáscar (as Inca Cripple) united to the Spaniards to defeat Chalcuchimac, Quisquis and the other in favor of Atahualpa.
Source: http://es.wikipedia.org / wiki / Atahualpa
Page created web March 30 of the one 2005.
© Copyright 2005 Gualberto Valderrama C.