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ARCHAEOLOGICAL COMPLEX DE OLLANTAYTAMBO


In the opposed end to Písac and 80 Kms. of the city of Cusco we find the town of Ollantaytambo, a space where the design of the archaeological complex with the current town. To this district of the county of Urubamba you arrives for the asphalted highway Chinchero - Urubamba, and also for railroad (68 Kms.). It is to 2,700 meters high, and just as we have pointed out it, as much their design as the bases of most of their constructions correspond to the time of Incario.

The archaeological complex of Ollantaytambo was a military strategic center, religious and agricultural. The architectural scenario is of exceptional interest for the size, style and originality of its buildings.

The origin of the name has several focuses. According to the language aymara, Ollantaytambo derives of the word ulla-nta-wi that he/she means "place to see down"; the term tambo, it is added later on. For the Quechua language, the name comes from the word Ollanta (that it is the name of an Inca captain whose history stayed like an oral tradition, and written as Antonio's drama Valdéz, priest of Urubamba, by the middle of the XVIII century) and of the term, tambo, a Spanish derivation of the word Quechua tampu; that means, "city that he/she offers lodging, food and comfort to the travelers."

Residents' of Ollantaytambo testimonies give bill of the conflicts and dislikes that existed toward the Inca. The history mentions that its inhabitants refused to pay the taxes ordered by Inca Pachacútec, for what you/they were immediately executed.

With the victory, Pachacútec claimed the territory like own, and it ordered the construction of the magnificent buildings that today shows the city. For it, it was served as the children's of Collao manpower, an area fences to the lake Titicaca and Tiahuanaco that it was also conquered. The children of Chuchi Cápac, the conquered general of Collao, they had to work as manufacturers of the strength, but a lot of time didn't pass so that they decided to rebel and to escape. Finally, after many confrontations and great spill of blood, Inca Pachacútec was able to contain the violent rebellion.

Another part of the history of this city played it Inca Cripple's indigenous resistance who, after to maintain fenced per months to Cusco, and when seeing that its own forces weakened, he/she retired to Ollantaytambo. The city offered him/her a perfect defense, covered by eleven staggered platforms that allowed him/her in the year of 1537 to conquer to the army of the Spanish conquerors, before the Inca king retired to Vilcabamba.

Inca drama
Ollantaytambo was engraving in the memory of the world thanks to a drama written in the XVI century, and represented in the theater in the year 1780. The history narrates the conflicting love between general Ollanta and Cusi Coyllor, the daughter of Pachacútec. Ollanta was distinguished of the other generals of the empire by its courage and great ability, but he/she had to leave of the city disappointed by not being able to love a girl that didn't belong to its social class. Already far, Ollanta incited the population to the rebellion against the imperial army, causing a war that lasted an entire decade. Finally, our hero was captured by the captain's betrayal Rumiñahui, and taken to Cusco before Túpac Yupanqui; who, after listening the history, he decided to liberate it and to accept it as his sister's partner.

Description
Ollantaytambo is another archaeological national park to which are attributed different functions. For their strategic location. Ollantaytambo was a military construction lifted to protect the capital of the Incan empire of the possible invasions of Antis. It is also said that it was built to enable roads toward Antisuyo.

What nobody discusses is that it was a very fortified city, surrounded of a wall with pukaras or strengths. The main of them is the call he/she Marries Real of the Sun; but we can also find the strengths of Choqana and Inkapintay, in the left side of the river Urubamba.

It is one of the few cities that still maintains the urban Incan planning. It is divided in two parts by the river Patacancha: the first (to the east) are in way octogonal with apples of different sizes, and the second (to the west) are of character ceremonial, where he/she is the Square Mañay Racay known as Aracma Ayllu.

Ollantaytambo - the Town
The town was divided in rectangular blocks with a geometric well planned outline that he/she gives the impression of being a town designed by modern architects. Their thin streets open up in address to the river Urubamba. Each apple or court is composed by a group of housings that you/they share oneself door toward the central patio.

Originally, a hanging bridge, fact with braided fibers of ichu or maguey was used that should be renovated annually. Today, the stone bridges that cross the river are built on two enormous songs.

The agricultural activity of this area was benefitted by the presence of the creek of Patakancha, place where it was big cultivation terraces that at the present time are deteriorated and abandoned.

Ollantaytambo - The ceremonial sector
It was dedicated mainly to the cult of "Unu" or "Yaku (deities of the water)." Hence, they existed a series of sources that you/they were good for this end, as the Bathroom of Ñusta that is one of the sources worked in a single granite piece, of 1.30 meters of high for 2.50 meters wide. It is one of the good known ones and water of its interior still flows.

This place is constituted by a short plain that takes to an enormous hill in whose sides archaeological diverse monuments are located. The main of them is located in the summit and it is known as The Strength or Real House of the Sun.

The Terraces of Ollanytambo
To the west of the square he/she is a group of terraces that you/they were good for two purposes: the cultivation, and to stop the corrosion of the most important temples in the area.

Toward the right the platforms are located guided toward the side of the square. The superior group of these, highlights for the fine one figured of its stones and its excellent assembling. The last platform contains the enclosure with ten niches, also called, the Temple of the ten windows, and the Monumental Cover whose function is still ignored.

It also highlights Inca Misana, an aqueduct carved in the stones of the mountain, next to a source liturgical, small stairways, and niches of false openings; that served as place where the Inca spoke his people.

The privileged position of Ollantaytambo, allowed that they had other small buildings located strategically in high angles of the mountains, to control people's movement in the valley.

The Strength or Real House of the Sun in Ollantaytambo
The Real House of the Sun, and Ollantaytambo in their entirety, still preserve the layout of the urban planning of the incanato. Their rooms still remind Inca Cripple's presence who faced Hernando Pizarro, in 1537, during the indigenous resistance that continued more for many years.

The strength or adoratorio are conformed by seventeen superimposed terraces, built on worked big stones of pink (red porphyry) granite that end up measuring more than four meters of high for two of wide, and two of thickness.

The walls or walls of the Real House of the Sun have an internal inclination, and the main of them, a composition of six blocks of enormous stones, with junctures of small stones that are part of the Main Altar.

It is believed that the main quarry for the construction of the place was Cachicata, located to 6 kms. of distance in the left side of the river Vilcanota. The rocks were carved partially in the quarries, and then they were lowered toward the valley. But there were some, well-known as tired" "stones that didn't arrive to their destination.

It has always impressed the form in that you/they transported the enormous stones from long distances; in this case, they required from an artificial parallel bed to the river to transfer the immense masses, and to go up them for a sheer slope. They used instruments like log rollers, rolling stones, ropes of camélidos leather, levers, pulleys and the force of men's thousands.

It is thought that this construction type has as antecedent the architecture of Tiawanako - that could bring the collas, from the region of the Lake Titicaca -, since in the external surface of the room, to the south end, there are three carved symbols that they belong to the culture pre-ceramic: Hanan Pacha (The Sky), Kay Pacha (The Surface of the Earth) and Ukhu Pacha (The Underground or Interior). But the Inca particularities are differentiated by the use of junctures and external finely refined surfaces that inclusive served them of mirrors.

To know the mysteries and the might of its walls can enter to the strength by means of a stone (journey from 15 to 20 minutes) perron that takes it toward an esplanade and to a portal that is looking at the Square Mañay Racay.

Inca Huatana or Intihuatana of Ollantaytambo
Located in the superior part of the Temple of the Sun, in an almost vertical slope, Inca Huatana or Intihuatana it consists of a wall with high niches in whose sides are holes of security of up to 80 cms. of depth. In front of these there is a structure that is suspended on a cliff, reason for which one believes was used for the torture and prisoners' of war execution or malefactors, although the function of astronomical observatory is that most accepted one.

The Center Pincuylluna
Pincuylluna that means "where the pincuyllo" is chimed - instrument of wind of Inca origin - it is located to the west of the river Patucancha, in front of the Temple of the Sun. It is an architectural complex that is composed of buildings of three identical and superimposed blocks. The base of the blocks is rectangular, they possess six windows in the facade and six in the wall that gives to the hill, providing an appropriate ventilation and illumination.

In the place they are the most interesting colcas (agricultural deposits) in the Sacred Valley, because to the left of these one can observe a gigantic stone block that, for the villagers, it represents the face of an Inca.

If he/she wants to visit the place, we indicate him/her that the journey is of three hours of walk.

Museum of place of Ollantaytambo
The museum is work of the Andean Center of Traditional Technology and Culture of the Communities of Ollantaytambo (CATCCO). We recommend him/her to visit him because it presents in a didactic and modern way the history of the region.

It contains five rooms in the second floor of a large house on an Inca old court, what allows the visitor to know more about the history, archaeology, architecture, craft and the inhabitants' of Ollantaytambo beliefs.

Also, this association organizes walks through seven ancestral routes: Yanacocha, Pincuylluna, Pumamesarca, Huílloc, Páchar, Cachicata and Ollantaytambo. The walks take from three to seven hours, and they have tourist guides.

Source: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com / search?q=cache:XPJ5tshK85oJ:www .cusco-peru.org/cusco-peru/alrededores-cusco-ollantaytambo.shtml+ollantaytambo&cd=10&hl=es&ct=clnk&gl=pe



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Page created web March 30 of the one 2005.
© Copyright 2005 Gualberto Valderrama C.