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SACSAYHUAMAN


The translation to the Castilian of this Quechua word is of hawk saceado. They are abundant the descriptions of the wealth of the interiors of this complex, as well as of high quality and great quantity the objects kept in the old sacsayhuman deposits. This would confirm that it was a temple dedicated to the solar cult or, I eat appropriately I call it Cieza of León he/she "Marries real of the sun."



SACSAYHUAMAN
SACSAYHUAMAN
To 02 km of the cusco, to 10 min aprox. in car or to 25 min on foot is the strength of SACSAYHUAMAN.



SACSAYHUAMAN I
SACSAYHUAMAN
This cyclopean strength of the Inca time this conformed by three superimposed platforms that they have an average 360 meters long.



PUERTA DEL SOL
DOOR OF THE SUN
The 03 platforms of the strength communicate among if to travez of perrons and access doors also in stone. This door is known as the DOOR OF THE SUN.



MUYOC MARKA
MUYOC MARKA
Of the Temple of the Sun they are even several vestiges, belonging one to them the acquaintance as MUYOC MARKA. MUYOC MARKA is also known as the SOLAR CLOCK or INCA CALENDAR, this tool allowed them to determine the stations and for ende to work the agriculture appropriately.



SACSAYHUAMAN III
SACSAYHUAMAN
One of the stones that is part of the strength of Sacsayhuaman has 9 m of height for 5 m of wide.



SACSAYHUAMAN III
SACSAYHUAMAN
Another of the stones that is part of this complex has an approximate weight of 128 TM.



USUCAYJANAC
USU PACHA, CAY PACHA AND JANAC PACHA
As he/she comments them initially Sacsayhuaman this conformed by three platforms and each one of them would represent the three levels of the RELIGION INKA. The serious first level USU PACHA and it represents the DEATH. The serious second level CAY PACHA and it represents the LIFE. The third level is JANAC PACHA and it represents the divine thing that is to say to its GODS. In this picture taken from SUNCHUNA, it is appreciated additionally to the platforms or terraces, CHUQUIPAMPA or the plain of the lances, which was a very converged place, where ñustas groups surrendered homage in the sun during the dawn and where diverse goods that were stored in the deposits of the area circulated. Recent excavations have found payments to the earth and remains of homages that demonstrate the religious importance of the place. At the moment in this place he/she takes place the great party of INTI RAYMI which takes place June 24, and it coincides with the winter solstice and with the CORPUS CHRISTIAN CHRISTI.



TRONO DEL INCA O K'USILLUP HINK'INAN
THRONE OF THE INCA OR K'USILLUP HINK'INAN
To the north of the plain of Chuquipampa Suchuna is located, it is from a geologic similar formation to a hill with a series of waves that you/they form parallel furrows in the rock. Nowadays the children use it as a toboggan. In the high thing he/she is the call "THRONE OF THE INCA", some villagers call it K'USILLUP HINK'INAN (I jump of monkey). The translation is enough comic to be of a carved in alive rock in form of two lines of steps. From this point one has an excellent view of the whole complex, making think that it is about an excellent place for a real seat, as well as for an altar. Some guides of tourism call to this place like the throne of the 14 Inca, the truth that I am 13, but they pointed out me that that of the mean is worth for 2.



La SUNCHUNA o RODADERO
SUNCHUNA or RODADERO
This is the rodadero, I don't believe that nobody rotates here, but if that he/she slips or slide. In SUNCHUNA, they have been platforms, tombs, tunnels, stairways worked in stone. Recent archaeology works have discovered a spring that supplied from water to a circular puddle from which left a complex net of channels. To the front of the resbaladera he/she is an amphitheater where the Inca met with his rulers.



CHINCANA
CHINCANA
To a side of the amphitheater they are these archaeological remains worked in stone. These contemplate a throne for the Inca and they included seats for 02 ñustas. To the right side and almost to the front he/she is a rock that has 02 seats, which are given the sword, these they have shown they were occupied by 02 of their bodyguards, one looked in the same address that the Inca, while another in contrary address. Also, to the left side and before this throne, located in the rock he/she is a seat for a third guardaespalda.



CHINCANA CHICA
CHINCANA GIRL
SMALL CHINCANA, is a labyrinth that is adjacent with the amphitheater. the same one this to some 150 m of the toboggan of RODADERO, is of low height, but to lean is enough to be able to cross it.


camcorder graphic THE STRENGTH DE SACSAYHUAMAN



Sacsayhuamán is one of the Inca constructions that more astonishes the tourists that, according to new hipóteisis, they point out that it would have been a ceremonial important center and don't unite strength.

Anyway, let us see the traditional understanding on Sacsayhuamán. It would be about a built spectacular strength with carved enormous rocks, together with absolute precision. Together with Machu Picchu and Choquequirao are, without a doubt, one of the architectural biggest works in Tahuantinsuyo. But, also, it represents the certain perseverance of the administrative capacity of the empire and their logistical powerful apparatus.

Their Quechua name means satisfied" "hawk. Therefore, it was the hawk that guarded the capital of the empire, because from the hill in that it was erected it dominates the whole city. If, like one knows, Cusco was designed with the form of a recumbent puma, Sacsayhuamán would come to be its head, as long as Koricancha would correspond to the genital of the feline.

It is said that the work began it Pachacútec and Túpac continued her Yupanqui, although some columnists point out that it was Huayna Cápac who gave him/her the final touch. Inca Garcilaso de la Vega counts that Apu Huallpa Rimachi was the main architect, and that Maricanhi, Inca Acahuana and Cunchuy Remains silent, they took the control of the works successively.

Their construction took more than seven decades and it required the force of about 20,000 men, so much in the work of the foundations like in the quarries, the transport of materials, the figured one and the placement of the stones. The quarries could be located in Muina, Huacoto and Rumicolca, to 20 kilometers of Cusco, and in nearer places as Sallu, Rumi, Chita, Curovilca and Viracocha. Their external walls can surpass the 9 mts. of height and some of the stone blocks weigh more than 350 tons.

Location of Sacsayhuamán (3600 msnm)
Sacsayhuamán is an archaeological group located to the north of the main square of Cuzco, to 1 km. of San Cristóbal's colonial parish and to 2 kms. of the Square of Weapons, about 10 minutes in car. The aspect that presents today is very different to the one that the conquerors left, because this strength was used as quarry to build colonial Cusco. In Sacsayhuamán he/she relaxes, June 24, the ceremony of Inti Raymi, an ancestral celebration in honor to the god Sun.

Description of Sacsayhuamán
It is usually described to Sacsayhuamán like a strength, because it is practically contained by three slopes, and it is conformed prodigiously by colossal stone blocks united that preserve the city. However, the fact that the Inca build a strength there is strange, since to the moment of its construction they didn't face bigger threats.

Their stony immense walls amazed the Spanish recently arrived conquerors and they denominated it "strength", according to their conception of the cities and of the military constructions of the time. For the particular way of seeing the world of the Inca, much more era. The ramparts, turrets, houses, adoratorios, deposits, roads and aqueducts that integrated this Inca formidable construction demonstrate it to us.

Their form and location would have obeyed other principles rather, as that of the harmony between the architecture and the landscape. The current investigations suggest that it would have been about a temple dedicated to the cult of the Sun, for which not only the construction was important, but also the environment that surrounded it.

The complex architectural squatter the border of the north hillside of the city. The south side of the construction was fenced by a refined wall of almost 400 meters long. The limits of the temple, for the east and the west, they were marked by other walls and platforms. The main front of the construction looks to the north and it is protected by a formidable system of three platforms. These are supported by zigzaging walls, constituted by stones of great size that astonished their first visitors and that it continues astonishing even now. Inca Garcilaso affirms that these walls were made to demonstrate the Inca might.

The main wall is formed by stones that end up measuring up to 5 meters of high and 2.5 meters wide, and that they can weigh between 90 and 125 metric tons. To move these stones was a true prowess, but it was also it the perfect fitting among them, as well as the on care in the bend of those padded.

From Sacsayhuamán it is obtained a spectacular view of the City of Cusco and their environment. Also, summits like those of Ausangate, Pachatusán and Cinca can be sighted, places that it is believed are inhabited by apus or powerful spirits that govern the mountains.

He/she marries Real of the Sun
Sacsayhuamán is one of the lithic big monuments of the Incan architecture, and it was in fact a Real House of the Sun. They are abundant the descriptions of the wealth of the interior decorations, as well as of the high quality and the abundance of the objects kept in their rooms. It would confirm it that it was a temple dedicated to the solar cult or, I eat Cieza of León, a Real "House of the Sun" appropriately he/she called it.

Waldemar Espinoza Soriano, profuse investigator of the Incan society says that Sacsayhuamán is called "strength" popularly, in spite of the fact that, like Cieza of León says, it was "a temple dedicated in the sun."

Among the columnists that describe to Sacsayhuamán like Real House of the Sun, we can mention to the following ones:

* Garcilaso de la Vega who leaves testimony in their Real Comments that the cusqueños knew that this architectural complex was in fact a Real House of the Sun. In the chapter VI of their Book Seventh say: an Inca of real blood "left the strength as messenger of the Sun... it left the strength and not of the Temple of the Sun, because they said that he/she was a messenger of war and not of peace that the strength was he/she Marries of the Sun."

* Pedro Cieza of León, Spanish columnist of the times of the conquest, says in her book The Dominion of the Inca that to the north of the city of Cusco, in a hill, the Real House of the Sun was located.

* Martin of Murúa, also Spanish columnist, says of Sacsayhuamán that was dedicated at the beginning for House of the Sun and, in this time, you/he/she only serves as witness of her ruin."

"It is certain that there is not in America any archaeological other structure that as much impression to the visitor as Sacsayhuamán causes. For very forewarned that one is, the show overcomes that imagined." (Alden J. Mason).

The doors of Sacsayhuamán
There were several doors that communicated the different levels through stairways. Garcilaso has left the names of three of them. In the wall of the biggest stones he/she was the door of Tiu Punco (tiu means sand), the second called you Acahuana Puncu and third Huiracocha Puncu (in honor to the god Huiracocha). In one of them Juan died Pizarro (I mate of conquering Francisco Pizarro) of a blow in the head, when the Spaniards attacked to Inca Cripple's rebellious forces during the place of Cusco.

The towers of Sacsayhuamán
The main enclosure is formed by three big terraces whose lands were leveled and even. On them several buildings and three big towers rose. To the side this Paucar was it Marks (beautiful Enclosure), in the center Sallac Marks (Enclosure with Water) and to the west Muyu Marks (round Enclosure). First both had rectangular plant, and of one of them are hardly light prints, while of second o'clock it toasts the foundations they have only survived. They indicate that it was about a construction of rectangular plant. This tower finished in a roof to two waters of great inclination.

Tower of Muyu Marks - The tower of Cahuide
It was a cylindrical tower that, thanks to the information contained in the chronicles and to later excavations, we know that it would have been about a building of four superimposed bodies. The first body would have had a square plant; while the last three would have had cylindrical form. The successive retirements would have formed circular platforms of wide falling, being the widest of 3.6 mts. and the narrowest in 3 mts. The tower would have finished in a conical roof. Muyu Marks it should reach a total height 20 meters. An impressive work that he/she woke up the admiration of several columnists was. The Spaniards destroyed it, in spite of the so much protests of Cieza like of Inca Garcilaso.

Muyu Marks it was not only a building of exceptional line, but also of historical great value. It was the place where he/she was carried out the indigenous biggest resistance against the Spanish conquerors during Inca Cripple's rebellion. From their higher part Titu jumped Cusi Huallpa (also called Cahuide) for not falling in its enemies' hands.

The terraces
At the moment it is very little of the old constructions built on the terraces of the complex. Among the towers of Muyu it Marks and Sallac Marks a square lengthened existed from where one has a magnificent view of the City of Cusco at the moment. In the highest terrace in the group he/she is a circular puddle that could be a reservorio of water, and a rectangular building of a single door. In the southeast end of the complex curved platforms and two colcas alignments can be observed. In general, in the whole complex there are prints of an excellent system of provisioning of water for their occupants, as well as a system of drainage of the water of the rains.

Geographical Aspect
In immemorial times, the Valley of Cusco or Watanay, as well as he/she is denominated, due to the river of the same name that it crosses the area, it was not formed by the fertile lands that later would characterize it, but rather it presented in their place three lakes distributed successively throughout 30 kms.

For this reason, it has been determined that the geologic formation of Yunkaypata (where Sacsayhuamán is), has around 80 million years and it is of marine origin, because it contains fossilized remains of sea hedgehog and other organisms of that habitat. The erosion and the atmosphere took charge of wearing away the big masses of limestone of the place. Precisely here "Rodadero" exists kind of a granitic called toboggan whose refined he/she would be due to the seismic action of the flaw where he/she is.

Rock types like the andesita that it is in the constructions of Sacsayhuamán are not of the same place. They were possibly transferred from Waqoto and Rumicolca, located to more than 38 Kms. of there. In all ways, like the Peruvian archaeologist Caesar García Rossell says, it will always constitute an enigma to clarify the place or places from where the big stone blocks were taken until the summit of the hill, and the technical means or haulage teams, strings, ropes and hundreds of arms, used in the task.

How to arrive to Sacsayhuamán
You can arrive on foot at the archaeological park so much as in automobile. If he/she wants himself to arrive walking, the journeys delay approximately 30 minutes, while in car 10 minutes. Several routes exist. Leaving from the Square of Weapons is possible to ascend for the Admiral's Hill for Silversmiths or for Sweden. All these streets culminate in the circumvallation that leads to Sacsayhuamán. For her you arrives directly to the hut of control of entrance of the Archaeological Park.

The Route on Foot to Sacsayhuamán

For the Admiral's hill
If you ascends here it is necessary to continue Córdoba down the street until Plazoleta of Nazarenas; there he/she takes the street Nazarenas and then Pumacurco until the end. Another possibility is to advance for the Admiral's Hill until the street Casket and to continue for this street, it stops later to continue for Huaynapata until the end. This itinerary delays about thirty minutes.

By Sweden
Another route pedestrian part of the street Sweden, bending in Huaynapata and continuing for Resbalosa, until arriving to the Circumvallation.

For Silversmiths
Walking here should be continued by Saphi and then to take the sheer hill of the Bitterness that leads to the Circumvallation.

The Route in Automobile to Sacsayhuamán

If he/she prefers to go in car he/she can take the street Sweden until the school Salesiano, to turn to the right and to continue for Circumvallation. You can also begin in Silversmiths, to continue Saphi down the street and to finish in the Circumvallation. A taxi until Sacsayhuamán, without included tour, it can cost 5 suns. If he/she prefers he/she can take the buses of the street Puputi that go to the Sacred Valley, the passage it costs 3 suns.

Source: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com / search?q=cache:3oz6kG16CRcJ:www .cusco-peru.org/cusco-peru/alrededores-cusco-sacsayhuaman.shtml+sacsayhuaman&cd=2&hl=es&ct=clnk&gl=pe



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Page created web March 30 of the one 2005.
© Copyright 2005 Gualberto Valderrama C.