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ARCHAEOLOGICAL COMPLEX DE TAMBOMACHAY OR TAMPUMACHAY


The archaeological place of Tambomachay is 8 Kms. (15 min.) to the northeast of Cusco, by lorry asphalted, and to 1 Km. of Puca-pucará. It is located in the skirts of a hill near the main road to Antisuyo, on the river Tambomachay. He/she is also known as Tambo of the Cavern and squatter an area of 437 square meters, located on the 3,700 meters of altitude.

Apparently it was about the favorite spa of the Inca, but at the same time, it was one of the pillars of the defensive system of the valley of Cuzco.

The name comes from two Quechua words: Tampu that means collective lodging and Mach'ay that it means place of rest. However, according to other references, the word "machay" means "caverns", what would describe the peculiar environment of the place in which these rocky natural formations are appreciated, that that according to the indigenous tradition, they were adoration object or practical magic.

Formed by a group of finely figured stone structures, aqueducts and fallen of water coming from the springs and thermal near (for what is thought it was related with the cult to the water) sources it is one of the pillars of the Andean cosmovisión. It is considered as one of the adoratorios of the first ceque of Antisuyo.

According to the chronicles it was limit of hunt of Inca Yupanqui, that which makes suppose that it was about a very rich area in animal species.

Description
The monument is remarkable for its architectural excellence. Four walls or staggered terraces are observed embedded to the hill, built on the figured, masterfully assembled base of irregular polyhedrons of stone, and that they form three parallel platforms. On the last a thick wall (15 meters of longitude for 4 meters high) is erected adorned with four niches. The stones have been perfectly inserted. It presents four big niches or trapezoidal niches of two 2 meters on the average. In front of the construction there was a circular turret that should have defense ends and communication.

Cult to the Water
The water in itself was worshipped as source of the life. Tambomachay possesses a hydraulic extraordinary system. Two aqueducts artistically carved in the rock they transport and they maintain a constant flow of clean water and white during the whole year that he/she comes from a puddle that is at a higher level. This net of underground channels pours its waters in a small stone puddle in the lowest level. This puddle had to be a liturgical source, where the Inca surrendered cult to the water with the big of the Empire. The "Bathroom of Ñusta" has a lot of similarity to that of Ollantaytambo, of perfectly assembled stones, with carved edge and canaletas for the drainage. Although today is a work to open sky, the foundations seem to indicate that originally it was a closed enclosure. It is entered through four trapezoidal piazza platforms of double jamb. From the river two thick walls are observed that cut the maintenance wall. One of them looks to the river and he/she has two big niches, the second, almost perpendicular at the first, he/she has a door with double jamb. This door type was used by the Inca to stand out the importance of a place. For that door you arrives to a small room in which is visible the water that appears of the bowels of the earth. He/she has not been possible to discover the origin of the spring that supplies from so clean and abundant waters to the sources up to now. Some believe that the soft slope where the place is summoned he/she doesn't have capacity to produce those waters and that they could originate in the opposed margin of the river. Of what is not doubt it is of the perfection in the figured of the channels. The sound of the water, the tranquility and the peace of the atmosphere, as well as the closed form and collection of the space in which was built, give Tambomachay a peculiar atmosphere. Also, it is a great sample of the ability of the Andean architects to harmonize the constructions with the landscape.

Source: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com / search?q=cache:mzxDJgIocVsJ:www.cusco-peru.org/cusco-peru/alrededores-cusco-tambomachay.shtml+tambomachay&cd=2&hl=es&ct=clnk&gl=pe



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© Copyright 2005 Gualberto Valderrama C.