GEOGLIFOS OF HE/SHE FEELS
I have opted to make the transcription of some documents that you/they are in internet, in the part that you/they have direct relationship with Geoglifos of he/she Feels, the culture Paracas and Nazca, tada time that I am not a person turned in Archaeology, not even History of Peru.
Of the first I articulate that I have gotten off internet it is, "GEOGLIFOS OF he/she FEELS: DOCUMENTATION, ANALYSIS AND PERSPECTIVES", alone I have transcribed the SUMMARY and the CONCLUSIONS, serious good that read the whole report, it is quite complete and they can find it in: http://www.photogrammetry.ethz.ch/general/persons/karsten/paper/reindel_et_al_2006.pdf.
In the case of the second I articulate, you LINE DE he/she is BORN: RESOLVED ENIGMA, it has been transcribed in a complete way and it is important to read it in their since entirety in her he/she leaves but there of the explanation of of the discoveries and the used technology, if not that they think about new questions as; sedenterizacion and complex sociedas as well as the influence of the climatic change the human societies. This articulates the they can find in: http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0 ,2144,2610739_page_100.html.
Another articulates important of to read that will use but it advances it is the one that is in: http://www.dainst.org/index.php?id=593&sessionLanguage=es.
On the other hand it is necessary to specify that the appropriate word to use serious GEOGLIFO, just as they make it in their formless Markus Reindel, Johny Island and Karsten Lambers.
Markus Reindel, Johny Island and Karsten Lambers.
Presently work shows up the results of an extensive fieldwork carried out on the geoglifos of he/she Feels, the second but big concentration of registered geoglifos in the region of Feel-Nasca, in the north part of the basin of the Big River. This geoglifos was established on the hillsides and plateaus that are among and throughout the valleys of the Big rivers, he/she Feels and Viscas. The documented evidences indicate that the construction of the geoglifos of he/she Feels it began during of the development of the culture Paracas and I finish at the end of the development of the culture Nasca. During that time, especially during the development of the culture Nasca, the hillsides and plateaus were part of a social active and lively landscape, where the geoglifos was the headquarters of religious important ceremonies that you/they rotated around cults to the water and the fertility.
In accordance with the evidences described on the whole, it is clear that in times of the culture Nasca - and even from times of the culture Paracas - the hills, hillsides and the plateaus of the region of he/she Feels they had a character a lot but dynamic that at the present time. The inhabitants of the established establishments throughout the margins of the valleys frequented the terrestrial desertico continually to build, to enlarge or to modify the geoglifos, or to walk and to deposit offerings in different parts of the geoglifos. In this context, the stone constructions were the points of crystallization of human activities and they served at the same time, together with high posts, as orientation points. The activities of the inhabitants of the valleys on the plateaus were consequently very varied. Not alone the deposits of offerings, but also the lack of structures of religious function in the residence centers, they suggest that the geoglifos was important places For the religious cult. The foods and the shells of opposing Spondylus in the platforms or stone altars indicate that the ceremonies rotated around cults to the water and the fertility, that which is not of missing considering the arid climate and the ecological very fragile system of the region. This way, the plateaus that skirt the irrigated valleys acquired the character of a social well structured landscape, full with life and subject to constant modifications.
The lines of Nasca are much older of what was believed up to now and they formed part of cults of the water and the fertility. New knowledge on one of the biggest enigmas in the American old cultures.
The days 14 and 15 of June of 2007 are presented in an international congress in Bonn the results of a multidisciplinary international project of investigation on the lines of Nasca. The symposium is organized by the German Institute of Archaeology. DW-WORLD interviewed Dr. Markus Reindel, coordinator of the project.
DW-WORLD: To what new knowledge did you arrive in connection with the lines of Nasca? When, who, how and for what reason were they carried out?
Dr. Markus Reindel: We are under conditions today of giving new answers to those questions and .ello it is an essential result of our investigations. on the base of solids new data provided by the archaeology and the natural sciences. The question of the history and function of the geoglifos .gigantescos drawings in the floor. of the culture Nasca is one of the biggest enigmas in America of the prehispanic South. On they have been carried out it countless publications, but without settling up to now in a sure base of data. All the possible explanations have basically already been formulated about the meaning of the geoglifos, but generally appealing to isolated data. Our focus points to investigate the geoglifos in the region of Nasca in its cultural context, analyzing it in all its complexity. Archaeologically we work hence in two addresses: first, the elaboration of a documentation the most detailed and wide thing possible, with the most modern mensuration procedures, and second, the investigation of the establishments of the human beings that you/they carried out those drawings in the floor.
Many older of that than it was believed
With regard to the "when?": one of the derived new essential knowledge of our investigations is that the geoglifos possesses a much older tradition of what has been supposed up to now. In the region of he/she Feels, in the north part of the area of Nasca, we have found particularly many geoglifos of the culture of Paracas that preceded, in the years 800 at 200 to. of C., to the culture of Nasca. Evidently, the geoglifos was developed starting from drawings in the rocks that are also in great number in the area of the investigations and that they show similar reasons to those of the geoglifos. In the case of the drawings in the rocks, the used technique consisted on to puncture or to rasp the first dark layer of the desert, being to the overdraft, for contrast with the clearest stone that is under, reasons of lines and surfaces. In very similar form the geoglifos was carried out: removing the dark layer of the surface of the desert, in such a way that stands out markedly under the clear silt. When exactly the first geoglifos was carried out we cannot still say with accuracy. But with security it was in the time of the culture of Paracas, maybe before, in the initial" "Era and (1500-1800 to. of C.) even before still, in the Archaic one. Of all those times .y is new also. we have found remains of establishments and tombs in the region of he/she Feels.
Who did carry out the geoglifos? Without a doubt the human many beings that lived in the numerous establishments in the region of he/she Feels in diverse times. Through walks, test excavations and excavations in big surfaces could document the existence of more than 450 establishments in about 300 square kilometers, most of which remained inhabited through the different times. The human beings that lived in the fluvial oasis of the Big rivers, Feel and Viscas incorporated, through the geoglifos realization, the dry landscape of the desert to its social environment, giving him/her in certain form life to the desert.
Cults of the water and the fertility
And we approach this way to the last question: for what reason was the geoglifos carried out? We have clear indications that the geoglifos was used as a ritual landscape for cults of the water and the fertility. That explanation is in commendable principle starting from the situation of the prehistoric population's of the south coast of Peru life. The life and the survival in those oasis in the desert were limited by the factor it dilutes. The water was the base of the agriculture and when there was little water, it supposed it a crisis for the whole population. Hence it is understandable that the water was a central element in the economic life, but also in the religious cults. Those reflections were confirmed by our investigations of the geoglifos. For the first time we could carry out excavations in the geoglifos and we find an entire series of prints of human activities, particularly stone constructions and mud that can be interpreted as platforms and altars to deposit offerings in connection with cults of the water and the fertility. In particular the discovery of shells spondylus that you/they carried out an important paper like symbols of the water and the fertility from the beginning of the development of the cultures in the Andean area, is a white it proves of that hypothesis. That interpretation is also in consonance with the results of our associate's investigations in the investigations, the Institute of Geography of the University of Heidelberg, under the direction of Prof. Bernhard Eitel that could reconstruct, through their investigations geoarqueológicas, the climate of the region in the prehispanic era. The institute verified the existence of a desertificación process that began around the year 3000 to. of C., it was accentuated in the time of Nasca, of the 200 to 600 d. of C. and that at the end of the era Nasca, around the year 600 d. of C., it ended in a long phase of drought that made enter in crisis to the culture Nasca and it meant the beginning of its end.
With the decline of the culture Nasca also finished the tradition of carrying out geoglifos, after, exactly in the final phase, the activities were intensified in the geoglifos, through the construction of particularly big figures and the construction of cult buildings. The whole context around the geoglifos allows to deduce therefore that they were part of cults of the water and the fertility. That is the most probable explanation in this singular phenomenon.
New datación techniques
DW-WORLD: To what scientific new methods has it been appealed?
Dr. Markus Reindel: Thanks to the financing of our project on the part of the Ministry of Education and Investigation of Germany was us possible, in cooperation with scientific of the natural sciences, to develop an entire series of new technologies for its employment in the archaeology or to already adapt methods and technologies existent for its application in America of the South. The Center of Investigations Arqueométricas of the Academy of the Sciences of Heidelberg, for example, it has developed a new datación procedure for stone surfaces. For the well-known method of the radiocarbono for the determination of the antiquity new techniques of more precise and more economic datación could be developed. In the area of the geophysics, specialists of the Office of Conservation of Documents of Bavaria adapted mensuration procedures and evaluation magnetométricos to the conditions peculiar of the south hemisphere, where the magnetic field behaves in form different to as he/she makes it in the north hemisphere. Specialists of the Institute of Geography of the University of Heidelberg developed a technique to carry out mensurations three-dimensional geoeléctricas. The partners of cooperation of the Institute of Geodesy and Fotogrametría of the university ETH Zúrich improved the procedures for the automatic recognition of images in the fotogrametría of air images and they rehearsed its combination with data of escaneo laser. In the new Center Curt Engelhorn of Arqueometría, of Mannheim, new methods are elaborated for the determination of the origin of metals. Colleagues of the University of Gotinga contributed, through the employment of new technologies, interesting knowledge paleogenéticos and they supplemented the new data it has more than enough feeding and origin provided by the investigators of isotopes of the University of Múnich. Each one of those projects represents a cosmos characteristic of new possibilities in the archaeology that supposes important progress in the basic investigation.
DW-WORLD: How precise those methods are?
Dr. Markus Reindel: The archaeologists outline big demands, sometimes too big for the possibilities of recently developed technologies. But in some areas they were even overcome our most fearless expectations. Through the cooperation with the specialists in datación, for example, we could develop a chronology of the development of the cultures in he/she Feels almost complete and with a tolerance of accuracy of some few years. The analysts of isotopes tell us what the beings human, if more meat ate or more fish and if they always lived in the same place where we find their tombs. In the sector of the documentation we could measure in some few days an entire complex establishment with accuracy milimétrica, appealing to the technology laser. In that way one can draw each wall in court and of profile, with a stone texture. In the case of the datación of stony surfaces we hoped to consent to more exact dataciones, but we should verify that in the five years that it took the project they cannot be carried out all the necessary investigations to develop a new technology that appeals to the bases of the physics and it possesses the potential to revolutionize big parts of the archaeology.
DW-WORLD: Who does participate in the investigations, so much at national level as international?
Dr. Markus Reindel: In the project they participate in essence German, European partners and Peruvians. The ministry of Education and Investigation of Germany grants grants to the German institutions. But inside the project international cooperations have been created and individual responsibilities are given in order to achieve the formulated investigation objective. In Peru they participate the authorities of conservation of monuments, the Catholic Papal University of Lima and the Andean Institute of Archaeological (INDEA) Studies.
Throughout the project and in the mark of the growing intercomunicación in the different scientists' net projects "spin off" have arisen with cooperation partners that are not financed in the mark of the project. Colleagues of the University of Múnich, for example, consented to the possibility of carrying out investigations on the modifications of intensity of the magnetic terrestrial field leaving of ceramic pieces of he/she Feels well dated. A project of petroglifos documentation with methods of the fotogrametría and the escaneo laser of the University of Zúrich and of Hafenuniversität Hamburg supplemented our investigations in form ideal, so much methodical as thematically. The same voucher for a project of ceramic documentation with escaneo laser carried out by the Institute of Automation of the class of Computer science of the University of Vienna.
DW-WORLD: How do they cooperate the diverse main characters of the investigation to each other?
Dr. Markus Reindel: The success of this project .y also left one of the objectives. it is based essentially on the extraordinary cooperation among the diverse groups of investigators. It doesn't only mean that the investigators of the natural sciences exchange informations with the archaeologists, but rather at all the levels he/she takes place an intense exchange among all the participant disciplines in the project. It is therefore about an interdisciplinary net that generates many new ideas and new investigation results.
In Germany they took place periodically coordination meetings and conferences of information. In Peru they met several groups of investigators during the field campaigns. As particularly positive for the scientific exchange, but also for the creation of a productive work atmosphere, he/she revealed to be a field conference that gathered to all the teams of investigators in he/she Feels in 2004. There they showed up intermediate results of the investigations and later on they were visited during three days the investigation places in the mark of combined trips.
DW-WORLD: How is the cooperation with the Peruvian investigators and the Peruvian State?
Dr. Markus Reindel: The project had not been possible without a full cooperation with the Peruvian partners. In that sense he/she registered an ideal complementation among the Peruvian colleagues that contribute their extraordinary knowledge on the Peruvian archaeology, and the foreign scientists that contribute the most recent methods and technical developments in the works and .last but not least. the necessary funds that cannot be contributed by the Peruvian State in the necessary volume to protect and to investigate their cultural legacy. The Peruvian authorities always supported in form copy the project. Naturally, he/she also registered one that another delay in the concession of excavation authorizations or export of test material. But the cause of the responsible personnel's bad will didn't leave, but rather they were the political changes after elections or similar transformations of government's system. Basically we win the impression that our work in Peru and the reconstruction of the prehispanic history also enjoys great appreciation.
I change climatic: it influences on the human societies
DW-WORLD: Which are the perspectives of future of the investigations?
Dr. Markus Reindel: Each archaeological investigation could conclude with the sentence: We have achieved many new knowledge, but simultaneously they have thought about many new queries." It is this way also in the case of our project. Beyond the new knowledge it has more than enough methods and technologies that can be applied in the entire world in the archaeological investigation, we meet with questions that they can have importance Peru it doesn't only stop, but for the whole planet. For example in America of the South the existence of changes of the climate could be proven that have equivalent in the Old World and that evidently they were developed in parallel form to important landmarks in the humanity's history, such as the sedentarización or the complex society emergence. Hence we suppose that the climatic changes had an important influence on the development of the human societies. In Peru we had the opportunity to analyze, practically under laboratory conditions .en the fluvial oasis in the western part of Peruvian Andes, in ecological areas in quick succession between Pacific and the mountain range of Andes. the relatively short development of human societies from the first human establishments in America, makes approximately 12.000 years. As the development in America took place in totally independent form of the development in the Old World, we had an excellent comparison referent, of which we hope to achieve many new knowledge regarding the development of the human societies in general. First investigations for that project, denominated "Andentransekt" that we already carry out in the highland between 3000 and 4000 meters high and in the coast of Pacific, they are very promising.
DW-WORLD: Is it foreseen to carry out exhibitions in connection with the new results of the investigations?
Dr. Markus Reindel: The idea of carrying out an exhibition with the results of our investigations already arose last year. An ideal partner for it would be it the Museum of the Art, of Lima whose directress, Natalia Majluf, he/she has already manifested great interest, as well as the department of Culture of the embassy of Germany in Lima. We imagine a new type of archaeological exhibition, in the one that you/they not only show up without any doubt the archaeological discoveries .que they are spectacular, exactly in the case of the cultures Nasca and Paracas and that they could still be supplemented not in form ideal with collections shown of the Museum of the Art., but also the new knowledge on the geoarqueología and the history of the climate, as well as on the customs of life, the feeding forms and other resulting conclusions of the investigations of the natural sciences. We are sure that also in Germany we can find partners among the museums etnológicos that could also exhibit their collections of the south coast of Peru in that way. Also for that side he/she has shown already interest. But at the moment we are even very busy with the evaluation of the results of the investigations up to now, the preparations for publications and not lastly the preparations for the conference the days 14 and 15 of June in Bonn, in which we present the results from our investigations to the public. After the conference we will attack the new projects.
Thank you for the interview.
The interview was carried out by Pablo Kummetz.
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