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GEOGLIFO TUMI


Tipologia of the geoglifos.

The classification of the geoglifos of Nasca usually distinguishes in a widespread way you line, swept areas and figures (Lights 2000: 61f). The registration of the geoglifos of he/she Feels it has demonstrated that it is required of a bigger differentiation if they are kept in mind the forms, the dimensions, the location and the contexts of the geoglifos (Lambers 2000).

In this sense, the category of you line them you can subdivide in you line narrow (aprox. 20 - 60 cm.), you line of a half width (until aprox. 1.50 m) and you line wide (until aprox. 4 m). You line them narrow they are observed mostly in flat surfaces. You line of this type they generally show up in complex combinations with other geoglifos or in figures, although in some cases they are observed you also line narrow isolated. Many times the bottom of those you line this totally clean of stones and strongly compactado, that which suggests that one has walked on them. In some few cases they are you line narrow in the hillsides of the hills, although most of you line them in that land type they have a half width and where the land requires it, they are deeply dug. In several places of the Crest of Sacramento those you line they extend in fan form on the hillsides, converging in a single point in the border of the plateau or in one it lines central that unites to half height of the hillside with other you line secondary. When they arrive on the edge of the plateau, their I carry to an extreme this marked one for a small lengthened structure of stones (by way of wall of double to r to). Another variety of you line of half width it crosses the flat plateaus in zig-zag form or the plateaus travel in parallel form to the big trapezes. In this I finish aspect they look like each other in many cases to you line them wide that are almost exclusively on the flat plateaus, which are not dug but - the same as the swept big areas - they have been formed removing only the dark stones of the surface, so that the underlying sand, of color but clear, it formed the surface of it lines her. You line them wide they are almost always part of a complex but big of geoglifos, either as bends or as the continuation of a trapeze.



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Among the geoglifos that form big areas they prevail the equilateral trapezes clearly. Three of their sides are almost always clearly marked for stone accumulations, while the narrow end is generally open. In the side but wide it is also frequent to observe alignments of stones. In the interior the stones of the surface have been removed, being observed different grades of cleaning. In general, they can be distinguished two types of trapezes: One but small - until 50 m of longitude - that is in an isolated way in the hillsides and where you grieve they find remains of devices on the surface, where neither there are stone platforms; and the other type that he/she understands trapezes a lot but big that are in the wide plateaus. This way for example, the trapeze but I release of the Crest of Sacramento it almost measures 600 meters long while in San Ignacio's pampas there is another trapeze that measures about 1,900 meters long. In general, those trapezes are always accompanied by other geoglifos (you line and you figure), with which form complex but big. Also, on the big trapezes he/she is a bigger quantity of ceramic fragments that it has more than enough the small trapezes and they are almost always accompanied by stone constructions: on one hand lengthened structures and of little height (by way of walls) that you/they are in the wide end or in the sides of the trapeze, and on the other hand rectangular platforms of more height that are inside the swept areas. As it was said before, frequently they are two platforms in the narrow end and another platform in the central axis of the wide end of the trapeze. In most of the cases the narrow (but not always) end is located in a point but high that the wide end. As for the category of the geoglifos in area, apart from the trapezes they are rectangles and combined forms, although in these last cases you cannot determine if it was about formal properly this types or only of variations of trapezes in places where he/she tried to take advantage to the maximum the available land. Finally, they are also several swept fields in diverse ways, of single few extension meters and inside complex but big.

On the other hand, the figurative geoglifos can be classified in five general groups according to their iconography: anthropomorphous, zoomorfos, fitomorfos, geometric and others that represent objects, abstract or stylized figures. Among all, the anthropomorphous figures are particularly numerous in the region of he/she Feels, while in other areas of the basin of the Big River of he/she Feels and Nasca is scarce.

The anthropomorphous figures have variable dimensions that you/they go from 2 to 30 meters of high and in general they are in hillsides of different inclination, generally looking to the valley, in many cases in groups of two or but you figure one beside the other one. In some cases the whole body is represented and in other alone one the head, generally with a headdress enough elaborated, while in some cases the trunk and the extremities are but careless and you grieve they recognize. Some of the figures also have objects in the hands. Among the geoglifos of he/she Feels it has been identified the BEING'S representation for the first time OCULADO, the main divinity Paracas, next to several other anthropomorphous characters. As for their construction technique these figures combine the extraction and the accumulation of the materials, since in many cases the heads and bodies were represented with fields and you line sweeps, while the eyes and the mouths were formed with accumulations of stones. Alone in some few cases whole figures were made in low relief, that is to say with the contours formed by the intact surface of the land, or to the you review, you figure relief formed by the accumulation of stones on high and that they present clear contours. The entirety of this class of figures in he/she Feels he/she is related stylistically with the culture Paracas and until the moment they are those but old identified in the region (Reindel et to the one. 2004).

As for the figures zoomorfas, in the region of he/she Feels these they are in minor I number that in the pampas of Nasca, although here he/she suits to make a distinction among the filiation figures Paracas and those of filiation Nasca. The first are not very well-known since they have been discovered recently and among them they are figures of felines and birds, which combine the same technique of the anthropomorphous figures and in general they are in the hillsides of the hills. On the other hand, the filiation figures Nasca if they are few in comparison with those of the pampas of Nasca and among these they highlight a pelican (Reiche 1993), a hummingbird cut by a trapeze (Kosok 1965) and a well-known figure generally as "the orca", among other, which are represented in flat places in connection with you line and trapezes, being this way part of a bigger complex. These figures are made with the same technique of their couples of the pampas of Nasca, either delineated by an alone one it lines continuous or, like in the case of the orca that has been modified or altered in several occasions in the same place and therefore it combines lineal several elements. This figure is together with a trapeze through several you line meándricas.

The figures fitomorfas are quite scarce and they are limited to stylized fruits that they prepare in radial form, taking as higher point the summit of the hills. These fruits would be yams, jiquimas or yuccas, which have been identified in three sectors of the pampas of Llipata. These figures seem filiation being Nasca although they differ enough of the figures fitomorfas that you/they are in the pampas of Nasca.

With regard to the geometric figures, in this group they are not considered the numerous ones you line, trapezes and swept fields described before, but the numerous figures in present hairspring form in he/she Feels, so much in the Crest of Sacramento like in the plateaus of Viscas, of San Ignacio and of Llipata. The hairsprings are almost always beside big trapezes and they are together to those by means of you line of half width. In general it is about round hairsprings, but there are also almost rectangular (stylized) hairsprings and in a case a figure in form of invested S. These hairsprings are almost always formed for thin you line (with clear compactacion indications to have been walked on them) that they drive to the center of the hairspring, where they give the turn and they return toward the initial point. In few cases it lines her it finishes in the center of the hairspring. The same as the figure of the orca, the hairspring in form of invested S was renovated in the same place, but they didn't incorporate elements of the old hairspring in the most recent version.

Finally, in the special case of the figures that you/they represent objects or abstract figures, it is necessary to consider the representation of a tumi (metal tool with leaf in form of half moon interpreted as ceremonial knife) that is in a hillside near the place of The Mills.

The same as other figures, this it is not isolated, but rather it is connected with other you line. Many of the several geoglifos types here described they are known for a lot of time, but in he/she Feels for the first time they are registering and classifying in a systematic way. Some types have also been defined for the first time, I eat for example those you line in the hillsides that finish in the border of the plateaus in lengthened structures of stones.

Another preliminary result is the evident correlation between the geoglifos and the topography, where the orientation of the trapezes generally follows the orientation of the plateaus, while you line them in the hillsides they coincide with the address of the land fall. Equally one can observe a clear relationship between the constructive technique and the cultural filiation of most of geoglifos, especially of those figurative ones, being noticed a difference for example among the geoglifos of the culture Paracas and those of the culture Nasca.

The analysis of recurrent combinations of geoglifos of different types seems to be specially promising. While in the pampas of Nasca numerous geoglifos they are distributed on the land without a recognizable order, in he/she Feels, due to the topography, they can be defined geoglifos groups that form groups. The interesting thing is that in those geoglifos groups they repeat certain combinations of individual geoglifos. One of the combinations but evident it is the following one: a big short trapeze in their it carried to an extreme narrow in a diagonal way one lines meandrica and then both they are connected by one it lines in zig-zag. That combination one can observe in several places of the Crest of Sacramento and of San Ignacio's pampas and Llipata. Another typical combination is formed by a trapeze with one it lines meandrica located to its side, which was partially covered in some cases during the process of lateral expansion of the trapeze. Other typical combinations have already been mentioned before in the description of the different geoglifos types. The fact that in several places of the studied area they are not only the same combinations of different geoglifos types in more complexes, but rather there is also an evident coincidence in the sequence of the construction of the different elements, this indicating that those combinations had certain meanings and functions specifies for the society Nasca. We suppose that the analysis of that phenomenon in the course of the future investigations presented been even but interesting.

Taken of: "GEOGLIFOS OF HE/SHE FEELS: DOCUMENTATION, Analysis and Perspectives", Markus Reindel, Johny Island and Karsten Lambers. http://www.photogrammetry.ethz.ch/general/persons/karsten/paper/reindel_et_al_2006.pdf



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Source: Google Earth



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