Pozuzo in Old Peru
The valley of Pozuzo was already inhabited by indigenous (amajes) and native (amueshas or yaneshas) towns from very remote times of our history. They have been and little studied the quantity of lithic (axes, raspers, tips and others) vestiges is; worked remains of incipient and better ceramic; weapons of stone of Inca origin and in the last years he/she has been fossil remains in the river Brain highway to Santa Rosa.
With regard to the presence of the Inca Culture, he/she has been remains of PLATFORMS that naturally indicates an Inca advance to the area of Pozuzo, in the place of Toropampa in route to the village of Brain an OLD MIRADOR exists.
Pozuzo in Colonial Peru
The Father Francisco of San José of the Convent of Ocopa at the end of the year 1711 arrived to Huanuco with the mission of reestablishing the conversions of Panatahuas, then he/she went to Pozuzo in the year of 1712 to evangelize the area.
In 1730 time of great bloom of these conversions, Pozuzo was reduced to two towns: Asunción of Pozuzo (with 164 native under the care of the father Francisco Honorio Matos) and Our Mrs. of Carmen of Tillingo (with 100 native to the father's pastoral care Francisco José Arévalo).
In 1742 Juan Santos Atahualpa in the Great pajonal rebelled against the Spanish power and he/she wanted to reconquer the Empire of the Inca, for such an end it looked for more allied among the natives and native of the Central Forest. Fearful that the rebel Pozuzo invaded since it was near Huancabamba; the Governor of the frontier of Huanuco with the back of the Father President of the conversions of Huanuco, in 1753 they ordered the despoblamientos of the towns of Pozuzo, for then to be taken to the Town of San Antonio of Cuchero (however many native they escaped to the mounts it stops then to return to Pozuzo).
The native pozucinos that were taken to the town of Cuchero didn't have a good one final, many got sick, they didn't have to eat neither coca plantations that to market and at the little time all died. The Franciscan Missionaries didn't have in mind to be isolated totally of Pozuzo neither less than the rebel subjected to the few ones native that stayed, for that reason in Santa Cruz's Town of it Summons they founded a temple and they could have this way access and quick contact with Pozuzo.
Pozuzo in Republican Peru
During the establishment of our Republican life, in many opportunities laws were given that propitiated the foreign immigration to the country; this immigration process took bigger force in General Ramón's Government Castile, when repealing in 1854 THE LAW OF SLAVERY and to prohibit the entrance of Asian, in order to encourage the European immigration.
The first German colonists that arrived in Peru made it in 1853 to settle down in the area of Tingo María, Tarapoto, Moyobamba and the Amazons; but the intent of colonizing the forest in this opportunity failed for organization lack.
The promoter for the arrival of peasants and austro-German artisans to Pozuzo, was the distinguished nobleman German Baron Cosme Damián Freiherr Schutz von Holzhausen, for this healthy purpose the Baron had the opportunity to interview with Mr. Manuel Thrown Secretary of External relationships of Peru in representation of the General President Rufino Echenique, in this he interviews vió the possibility to colonize the forest with the objective of uniting the costs of Pacific with Atlantic; commending the Baron so that it looks for an appropriate area for this colonization.
The first contract that the Baron signed failed to consequence that in 1854 a liberal revolution that deprived the President Echenique took place; for this political and military crisis that the country, the baron lived he/she had to sign another contract December 6 1855 with the new President General Ramón Castile.
According to this new contract the Baron had the commitment of introducing to the country 10 thousand German colonists during 6 years, on the other hand the Government from Peru offered the following thing: To pay the expenses of transport of Europe until Pozuzo, the construction of a new one on the way to Hill of Pasco to Pozuzo, each colonist bigger than 15 years would receive a bonus of 15 pesos, the distribution of 140 square leagues of vacant lands among the colonists he/she stops then to transform into legitimate proprietors, exempt of all tax and the maintenance of the first 6 months; the Government was also in the obligation of offering basic services as sanity, construction of schools, churches and others.
On the other hand the Government demanded the colonists to be Catholic, workers of a spotless behavior and to make possible east project the Baron it was named responsible for this colonization, assigning him/her a salary of 2,400 annual pesos.
Preparations for the trip
In 1856 the Baron Cosme Damián published in a German newspaper its project of colonizing Pozuzo, the Benedictine Father Agustín Scherer found out the project that would help its rural siblings and poor artisans, for that reason it recommended the Father José Egg Chaplain of Wald (Tyrol). After a dialogue with the Baron the support of both religious was officialized, being authorized to look for in Tyrol to suitable people.
The news that they would go accompanied by the father José Egg, it inspired bigger trust, it thrills and faith among the Tyrolese villagers, where each person that wanted to be part of the group, had to have a recommendation of good behavior granted by the Parish priest of her town, you/he/she is the case of Mrs. Ana María Egg of the village of Silz that when finding out that her children wanted to travel to "THAT CALL POZUZO", she also cheered up in taking out her recommendation.
The trip of Europe to Peru
March 16 1857 were the day of the departure, for that reason in the Square of the Church of Silz it was never before scenario of a great event seen; it was the hour of the departure, of the last good-bye, logical era that the sadness, happiness and the nostalgia reigned among them; however they made it with so much faith, it thrills and they were about looking for a new future in new lands.
The 200 Tyrolese parts of their dear alpes in two priests' company, the Father José Egg and José Uberlinger. In their first journey they made it for railroad, arriving to important cities like Ausburg, Stuttgart and Mannhein, of this city continues the trip for waterway until arriving to the city of Colony where he/she united the group of the 100 Prussians and March 25 arrived in Antwerp.
The 200 Tyrolese and 100 Prussians March 29 1857 of Antwerp "NORTON" weighed anchor in the old ship English guanero heading for Peru, Norton had hardly left the father José Egg it proceeded to celebrate the marriage's of 23 young couples sacrament; completing this way its expensive yearnings to form a family and to have its children. After several months of trips for Atlantic and then for Pacific, the colonists arrived July 25 from 1857 to the Port of Callao, where the Baron with a lot of concern waited for them; pitifully until the moment the trip had charged 07 deads (05 children and 02 adults). After a quarantine that lasted only some days, July 30 went aboard on board the Ship "The Inca" and after two days of trip they arrived to Huacho.
The colonists from Huacho begin their long, sacrificed and painful trip for earth, first crossed coastal areas it stops then to cross picks and snowy of the mountain range of Andes, the trip several hard days and when they arrived to Hill of Pasco, as a consequence of the intense cold, they got sick of "soroche." After overcoming many difficulties the colonists they decided to continue with the trip heading for Acobamba, where the road ended and starting from there the same colonists had to build its own road.
After an intense work and sacrifice the colonists were able to advance from Acobamba to Santa Cruz and Beautiful Pampas. From Santa Cruz the forest brow begins and there were not signs on the way, having to settle down in this place, building rustic housings, they made plantations, some corral birds and other provisions were raised. February 28 1858 an avalanche of mud and stones that it razed with most of the housings took place regrettably; Gaspar Egg screamed All to the chapel!, all to the chapel!, this natural event had provoked the death of 06 people (03 adults and 03 children). For that reason in Santa Cruz a German cemetery exists. All these incidents propitiated that a group of 50 people among them the columnist Clemente Yäger and the Father Luis Überlinger abandoned the group.
Finally, July of 1859 day of San Jacobo 25, the pilgrims' pattern and of the colonization, they arrived to Pozuzo 170 people (including those that had been born in the trip), because many colonists that Pozuzo had known in the first trip, also abandoned. They understood that it was not only to arrive to Pozuzo, but the existence of a road for not being abandoned neither isolated.
First decades of survival of the Colonists (1859-1905)
The Father José Egg, the following day of the arrival, he/she carried out a mass; later, in presence of all proposed that the Tyrolese and Prussians should be united as such, for it was necessary to choose their own mayors. At the request of the colonists the parish priest made the proposals, leaving elected: Don José Gstir for the Tyrolese and Don Cristóbal Johann for the Prussians, existing total conformity on the part of the colonists.
The first work of the Mayors and of the Father José Egg was the demarcation of the limits and the distribution of the lands. Agreeing that the Prussians would occupy the south part and left of the river Huancabamba that today takes the name of PRUSSIA, and the Tyrolese would occupy the north part until the fork of the river Pozuzo with Huancabamba, he/she noticed as limit the gulch of dark stones that today takes the name of RIVER it LIMITS. He/she also remembered the construction of the Church San José and the parochial House in the Center Pozuzo-the Colony, called TYROL.
Others of the complicated matters that had to solve were the distribution of the lands, the Father José Egg it proposed the gentlemen Mayors the following distribution: 100 wide steps for family and 60 steps to the bachelors throughout the river Huancabamba, so that each colonist received the same earth proportion.
The austro-German colonists in their new habitation, began a new life with signs of extreme poverty, isolated and abandoned to their luck, although the Peruvian Government of that then manifested the opposite.
Arrival of the second group of German (1868) Immigrants
This second group should be integrated by 500 colonists, however they only went aboard of Antwerp 321 people on board the Italian ship Valparaíso and after 97 days of marine trip they arrived to Callao in the afternoon of July of 1868, 22 it stops then to pass Huacho and prune this way to follow the same route of its predecessors (1857); it fits to point out that they only arrived to Pozuzo 315 immigrants for that in the trip 14 died and they were born 8. This second group should have been directed to the area of Mayro, but like road was not under good conditions they preferred to stay in Pozuzo.
Pozuzo toward their first centernario (1859-1959)
Other big events that you/they left print and they made history in Pozuzo at the end of the XIX century and first decades of last century it is the foundation of Oxapampa August 31 1891 for Don Enrique Bottger Treu and a group of colonists pozucinos of German origin that had arrived to Pozuzo in the second imigración group (1868); for the same time the intent of 5 families pozucinas to colonize the area of Chuchuras; and continuing with the migration, 13 families abandoned Pozuzo to found Rich Villa (1928); in the face of the necessity of continuing enlarging their frontiers with more cultivation lands, young pozucinos generations began to form a new neighborhood that Santa Rosa called herself (1940) and in 1967 the colonization began to the Elbow of Pozuzo, at the moment it is a district of the county of Inca Port in the department of Huanuco.
With reason of their first centennial newly the Governments from Austria, Germany and same Peru, they showed bigger interest in contributing to the well-being and development of Pozuzo, all time that the colonists were isolated and abandoned for more than 100 years. In that opportunity statements Governments they collaborated in the construction of Jesús" new Church "Sacred Heart, Center of Health, Central Hydroelectric Mini and other works. However, the main problem continued being the communication roads, because the so prospective highway via Oxapampa newly arrived in 1975.
Page created web March 30 of the one 2005.
© Copyright 2005 Gualberto Valderrama C.