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CERAMIC DE CHULUCANAS


Chulucanas is a small town located at 1 hour of trip in car of the city of Piura, to 1000 km. of Lima, in the north coast of Peru. The inhabitants of this town are descending of the tallanes and Vicús, before Columbus old inhabitants of this region who developed the ceramic in negative that today can appreciate in some museums under the name of Vicus.

This decoration technique "IN NEGATIVE" that has transformed into the main characteristic of the Ceramic of Chulucanas, technique rediscovered in 1978 by Flat Gerásimo who conformed the Group Sañoc Camayoc that the Sister supported Marista Gloria Joyce.

Of the culture they Carve, they inherit the technique of the paleteado that is a very singular method of modeling so alone vessels using a wooden palette and a rounded stone, the external part of the vessel it is hit and rhythmically with the palette while for the interior with the stone, by way of anvil, he/she goes losing weight and giving form to the vessel, thanks to the practice and the potter's ceramist ability.

PALETEO

First are formed the piece, using technical as: palette, laminate, pressed in mold, lathe or extrusado. The palette is a flat wooden tool that is good to give soft blows to the clay rolls that leave placing in hairspring to give form to the piece. This action allows to stretch and to plane the clay, to give him/her the form and to achieve a soft texture. It allows also to achieve very thin pieces.

THE ONE POLISHED WITH STONES OF HE/SHE LAUGHS

Once made the form and in leather state, he/she puts on makeup with engobes made with clays and pigments. Then one of the most important stages in the process comes: the one polished or refined that consists in rubbing the whole visible surface with stones of river in diverse ways and sizes, in order to achieve that this surface is totally glossy and homogeneous.

This operation is carried out entirely by hand 3 times and it requires of a lot of dexterity, in order to not to cause cracks or damages to the piece, damages that are not sometimes perceived but after having made the he/she burns of cake.

THE HANDMADE OVENS

Once dry, the ceramic goes to the firewood oven and he/she burns to a temperature from among 700 and 900o C aprox.

These ovens are built by the own artisans and potters in handmade form, and they use the firewood (piece of trunk of the Locust, tree very leafy and woody piurano) for hornar the ceramios

THE DECORATION AND THE REASONS OF MANNERS

The following stage is the decoration or barbotinado: it is used clay here it liquidates to cover those areas that are wanted to maintain intact and it is left to the overdraft those that are wanted to darken.

To this technique he/she is known like "reservation "or negative and he/she resembles the technique of the batik a lot, in which the wax is used with the same purpose. the piece this way decorated he/she enters to the oven of smoky where mango leaves have been conditioned. During this he/she burns of reduction, the mango leaf used as fuel will not take place alone the fume that will darken the ceramic, but also a resin that will give him/her the characteristic shine of the style Chulucanas when adhering to the ceramic.

This burns of reduction it is made 2 and up to 3 times according to the dark tone that is wanted to obtain and he/she allows to obtain a wide range of brown tones until arriving to the black solid.

The reasons in general refer to the customs characteristic of the area like they are Cholos, chicheras, singers, etc. as well as vessels that although it is certain they are no longer of popular use, they complete an ornamental ornamental function, although lately with the incorporation of new tendencies of but high temperature, is looked for to make them of utility, applying an interior glaze to make them raincoats to the liquids, in a same way you this introducing the electric lathe for massive productions of vessels with export ends.

THE FINISH: A TRUE WORK OF ART

The following stage consists on retiring the pieces of the oven of smoky, to clean them, taking out them the barbotina and to give them the final finish with zero and polishes, rubbing them until leaving them with an impeccable shine. When it is about utilitarian pieces, as vessels and vases, they are also applied a waterproof solution that allows to retain water in 95%.

Source: http://www.regionpiura.gob.pe/detapiura.php?pagina=chulucanas



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Page created web March 30 of the one 2005.
© Copyright 2005 Gualberto Valderrama C.