COUNTY DE TARATA
Tarata, is located the Nor-this of the region of Tacna, it limits for the North with the county of Candarave, for the South and West with the county of Tacna, for the Nor-this with the department of Puno and for the This with the republic of Bolivia.
CREATION AND POLITICAL DIVISION
District: ESTIQUE; Capital: ESTIQUE; Creation: High town to the district condition for law of November 11 of 1874.
The county of Tarata was created by Law of November of 1,874, 12 its capital it is the city of Tarata.
The prehistory of Tarata collapses in the darkness of the times. The archaeologist's works Ravines in the cave of Karu, shows a very early poblamiento of Tarata, toward 7000 a.c., that is to say more or less 9000 years ago. The study of the cultural regional development throughout the time is a task that the Archaeology even has to develop.
Not it is a lot what is known of the remote past of Tarata. The archaeologist Ravines found an establishment of the Archaic one in the place of Kano, in the heights of the district of Tarata, not very far from its current city. They highlight in the county of Tarata, for this remote period the petroglifos and the paintings rupestres.
PETROGLIFOS AND PAINTINGS RUPESTRES
The paintings rupestres are usually exclusively in eaves of rocks, grottos or caves. Always protected of the action of the rain that would destroy them immediately. They adapt to the relief of the rock, on which have been printed, which can be semiplano, irregular or of faces disarticulated to each other. They were generally painted with ocher of red (rich clay in iron oxide) color, in smaller number it can find them colored of color yellow ocher.
The interpretation of the petroglifos and paintings rupestres are very arduous and not always possible task, because the prehistoric man's cosmovisión was not similar to that of that, of later periods that yes it is good known. Generally, the reasons refer to elements of the local fauna that was they important, economic or ritually. It is very frequent the representation of isolated camélidos or in groups; in smaller grade, of cérvidos or also, scenes of hunt of the same ones. The reasons can be realistic or abstract. They can also be geometric, such as circles, hairsprings, concentric or very stylized circles, at a level to the one which, their interpretation is practically impossible.
The county of Tarata has a good number of places that you/they contain so much petroglifos, as paintings rupestres. Among them they highlight in the first place, the field of petroglifos of Sujilbaya, in Koropuro (district of Chukatamani), then Qhanajiri and Mokara in the district of Tarata. They can also be petroglifos in Estike pampas and Tikako, among other. They highlight for their paintings rupestres, the districts of Sitajara, Susapaya and the town of Talabaya in the district of Estike town.
Then, a hole exists throughout the Period Precerámico until the Initial Period, marked in its beginning by the appearance of the ceramic that in the South of Peru, it is late and he/she appears toward the first millennium before our era. Probably the andenería of Tarata, belong to the previous Period to the appearance of the ceramic, she constitutes one of its big and singular attractiveness. It is about a gigantic net of platforms, many of those which, they are until the worked day of today and they constitute the base of the agricultural economy, I sustain of the generality of the town of the county. The andenería is product of the continuous work of many generations throughout thousands of years, with all security, he/she has its beginning before our era and before the arrival of Tiyawanaku, and it was developed with the time, until reaching its maximum splendor in Tawantinsuyo, which simply administered efficiently it. The current line of platforms under cultivation, it is overcome thoroughly in more than 100 meters for platforms in abandonment from the colonial period, due to the population's reduction and of the decrease of the resource hídrico.
Some archaeological places that could be related to this remote Period pre exist - Tiyawanaku.
APPEARANCE DE TIYAWANAKU
Already during our era, the region of Tarata and that of Tacna in general, passed to the orbit of influence of the culture altiplánica of Tiyawanaku that had their center to the This of the lake Titiqaqa, at short distance of the Peruvian-Bolivian current frontier and that it overflowed their nuclear area, to enter in diverse adjacent territories of diverse climate and characteristic geographical and that they could provide it through installed colonies ad-hoc, of the resources characteristic of this territories. Some possible places are known that can be representative of this Period.
To the fall of Tiyawanaku, at the beginning of the second millennium of our era, he/she makes their irruption in Tarata, a town of speech aymara that he/she inhabited the south-western riversides of the lake Titiqaqa and that he/she would have enormous and definitive impact on the county of Tarata, it is about Lupaqa. They were one of the most noted towns in the nation aymara and to them share in luck, the annexation of this new territory. To their arrival, the aymara already found to the territory busy and they subdued the autochthonous population, subjecting this local population to a "aymarización" process that took to the disappearance of the precedent language and of the own ethnic identity of this population, the one which, during the Colony he/she ended up melting in the town aymara. It proves irrefutable of the presence prehispanic aymara, it constitutes it the chullpas presence or mausoleums of mud, typical structures of the culture aymara that are built with mud of diverse colors or colored with colors.
THE ARRIVAL OF INKA
By the middle of the XV century, the inka arrives and they conquer the region subjecting to the aymara and the residents primigenios of the valley to who they denominated: "Yunka" that means in language qechuwa: "fence, valluno or valley" inhabitant. Annexing this way, what today is the county from Tarata to the Empire. The inka organized territorially to the conquered ones and it proves of it is it that until today's day, an organization of called watering exists Lupaqa (to the South of the river Chakawira) and another call "Yunka (to the North of the river Chakawira)." This domain inka went fleeting and it didn't reach century. To the fall of Tawantinsuyo, the aymara recovered their freedom and they subjected again Yunka, absorbing them racial and culturally with the time.
The arrival of the inka to Tarata produced a reordenamiento of the power, passing Lupaqas that until then they had held the power, to be subject of the Empire next to the primitive residents of the denominated valley Yunka that until then they had subdued. Tarata, during Tawantinsuyu, was located politically in a county that the historian Rostworowski calls "Kolisuyu" and that he/she went from Camaná, in the south coast of Arequipa, until the North of the region of Atakama, in current Chile. This county Kolisuyu, was in turn it inserts inside the great macro-county called inka Kuntisuyu, located to the Southwest of the city of Cusco.
The inka left diverse and important prints of their step. In the first place, their establishments, numerous in diverse places of the county of Tarata, located in diverse floors altitudinales of the same one. One of them, called sta María, located at short distance of the road inka Tarata - Tikako, in front of the city of Tarata, it could have been a Tambo Inka associated to Qhapaq Ñan or real road. Then the road inka is in yes that is one of the clear and unanswerable prints of the step of the inka for the region. I walk that communicates the existent diverse ecological floors and also the cardinal diverse points, in a main and smaller intricate net of roads that you/they were trafficked by the population tarateña until well entered the XX century, until the coming of the affirmed highway. Even nowadays, far away places exist where the road inka constitutes the feasible only road. In other places, the road inka is used until certain tract, in the measure that leads to the cultivation fields and beyond them, he/she has been abandoned definitively. The road is usually wide and plan there, where this is possible. Nevertheless, the hard geography tarateña forces him to make use of the zig-zag for the descent or ascent of sheer hillsides and the use of bridges to cross the courses of water. The road inka of Tarata was a half important of control and communication for the inka and it integrated Tarata from an effective way to the Empire, facilitating the quick traffic of people and products in an and another address. Tarata is characterized by its production maicera and goiter, what should have made it specially important as center producing of foods for the near plateau altiplánica, where the inka had big establishments. The corn was specially important for the inka and for the generality of the indigenous Peruvian towns, because of him they didn't only consume the grain, but rather they elaborated its national drink the "aqha" or (name of the chicha of the qechuwa) Kusa (name of the chicha in aymara). Areas of this type were specially valued by the State Inka.
Qhapaq Ñan or real" "road was the name that the inka gave to the extensive net built vial during Tawantinsuyo. She overcame the 35,000 kilometers of longitude and it was one of the marvels of their time, because a work of such a magnitude didn't exist in America or Spain. Their construction began by the middle of the XV century, during the reyno of Pachakuti and he/she was prolonged during the reynado of its descending T'upa Yupanki, Wayna Qhapaq and Waskar. Their purpose was the one of articulating efficiently to each other, the diverse regions of the Empire, as well as the annexed new territories, in such way that its political, economic and military administration is quick and efficient. This way Ñan circulated for Qhapaq the armies inka, hundred of mitmas (forced colonists) thousands, hundred of yanas (servants to the service of the State) thousands and the famous chaskis service, spine of the administration inka. Qhapaq Ñan was made up of two types of roads: The longitudinal roads and the traverse roads. The longitudinal roads were the most important and they were two; the longitudinal road of the mountain and the longitudinal road of the coast. That of the mountain had pre-eminence on that of the coast, because it was throughout him, where they were built the cities inka that were good to administer the counties and from which it was administered the coast and the forest brow. The longitudinal road of the coast, an important road that united the whole coastal region integrating to its towns was and serving as half of quick communication for the State. The traverse roads were also of two types: The roads traverse mountain - coast and the roads traverse mountain - forest. Both types were of since great importance they were good to communicate and at the same time to supply to the cities inka of the mountain (the axis of the Empire), with the products of the tribute of the towns that you/they inhabited the two slopes of Andes. Tacna and Tarata were also integrated Qhapaq Ñan through a series of traverse roads that you/they were used intensely until the years 50's of the XX century. A longitudinal road that Estike, Tarata, communicates Tikako exists, Sitajara, Susapaya and continuous toward the county of Candarave and other roads that Tarata unites with the puna and with the coast. Inside the infrastructure vial, they played an important list T'ampus or inns, where the travelers could rest and to spend the night, as well as to feed. The t'ampus was administered and they were supplied by the ethnic groups for whose territories Qhapaq crossed Ñan and they made it like part of their tributes toward the State, they were also forced to the care and maintenance of the net vial that it crossed their territories. In Tarata, it highlights for their excellent conservation state, T'ampu of Chajlaka, in the town of Sitajara (capital of the district of the same name). The beauty and quality of the roads inkas of Tarata have been so grateful that the section of the road inka Tarata - Tikako has been rewarded in January of the year 2008, like one of the "7 tourist marvels of Tacna." Come, we invite it to travel the real road of the inkas!.
The period inka was short, it lasted less than one century, and the vital culture aymara would be able to survive its domain, arriving until our days with its language and its customs, belonging our territory to the region aymara of the South of Peru.
An unquestionable example of the force and antiquity of the culture aymara, constitute it the fact that in the region of Tarata one usually paints even the bases of the house of red color and the walls of white color, tradition that doesn't come from the Republic and their symbols, like it could be thought, but rather Lupaqa comes from the aymara, arrived to the territory at the beginning of the second millennium, more than 800 years ago. It can be proven it when comparing the chullpa of Kili (lines up), located in the district of Sitajara, with the pictures of Tikako and Yabroko, in the district of Susapaya. It you can also verify in the far away district of Chukatamani, where you can appreciate this tradition in the chapel of Koropuro, among other places.
To beginnings of the Colony, this territory was direct low domain of old Kuraqas Lupaqas that had its seat in Chukuito, to the banks of Titiqaqa. They exercised control Tarata, Putina it has more than enough located in Chipispaya (Chukatamani) and on Sama (in the coast).
The historian Cuneo, apparent that the aymaras of Tarata, Putina and Sama, came of the town of Pomata (next to the lake Titiqaqa) that next to Chucuito, Juli, Ilave, Acora, Sepita and Yunguyo, conformed the great cacicazgo of Chucuito. In the Hispanic documents of the first years of the Colony, the residents of Tarata, appear consigned as "mitmas" of (colonists) Pomata. To the Hispanic coming, the caciques of Pomata, Tarata, Putina and Sama were Champilla and they went him up to 1625, when they were only constrained Pomata, in the plateau altoandina. This domain was getting lost gradually during the first part of the Colony and old lineages Lupaqa of Tarata, you conviertieron in caciques of the region, becoming independent that political way, of the area altiplánica.
Of the first years of the virreynato a valuable document published by the historian tacneño exists, don Luis Cavagnaro Orellana in its "Material book for the history of Tacna." It is about a composition of lands made between the Indians of Estike and the Corregidor, agreement that would take to the official possession on the part of the Indian estikeños of their ancestral territories in front of the Crown, and he/she says this way :
"With date August of 1594, 3 the Corregidor García Ramón provided before his notary Juan González ".para that the Indians that resided in the gulch of Estike decreased to his town of Tacna (but I eat in the same place of Estike where) they had their sementeras and livestocks it was very distant of this town (of Tacna), they could not be spiritually doctrinados neither that you / administers them the sacred Sacraments (and even them) it imposed until the capital pain so that moves away from this gulch of Estike".
The Indians represented by protective ".su the Captain Juan Alfaro, (they said that) they were followed big damages in losing (the) possession of this gulch that you/they had for their sementeras and breeding of livestocks from the time of Inka with which to satisfy their loads in benefit of the Real one Mr. and that they were this way prontos to be admitted to composition with their majesty and that other not you apoderaen of the this gulch and their grass". The Judge of Visit accepted and the Indians offered 500 pesos although ".seiscientos composition (and they put under an obligation) pesos noticed to manufacture in the term of four months a chapel in the place that seems convenient and likewise to pay each one of the Indians that residieren in this valley gulch of Estike a weight in charge to the priest of Tarata so that they are administered sacraments and gives spiritual grass to be the most immediate". The cacique of Estike ". don Pedro Llangato and other Indians, with their protector, by means of interpreter and language put under an obligation to the this conditions and in the delivery of the six hundred pesos to their Majesty for whose end sold their livestocks of the earth (you call and allpaqas) and they gave" them. Own García took apparently of each resident, even of ".cuatro assistants in Potosí for what his wives" attended them.
The historian Cavagnaro points out that the boundaries settled down in the composition writing were the following ones :
Broken ".la Kapatiya ahead of the real road that he/she comes from Sama to Tarata that on one hand pretty the hillside and road that he/she goes to the high of Karaba for where a blow of water is precipitated that he/she enters in the river of Estike and for the pretty other band this valley with the lands and called stream Pakasiko that abuts with lands eriazas for before and for the high thing with the seat of Kapatiya until the lands and chacras of called potatoes Warinas under whose boundaries and limits requested they are given possession of this valley of Estike and that understands each other in her another contiguous and accessory called hillside Chapiba and for the high thing with the main canal with which one waters the this hillside and for below the stream until arriving opposite of the chacras of Kallastuki to whose ends have this hillside some very big boulders and a cave, with the use of the statement valley of Estike and annexes of these the grass that call Chillawa, Kiñahata, Pukara and Okori, which are in the puna of the jurisdiction of the river Mauri, to this part in all that which and with the noted this hillside Chapila had had and this possessed valley of Estike".
The historian continues Cavagnaro that as this hillside Chapila had not been considered in the original proposal of composition, the Judge and Corregidor expressed the Indians that ".de owed to compose it again with its Majesty, giving the quantity that fair fuere, that which understood by the Indians with its protector they offered that of three hundred pesos, the a hundred of counted and the two hundred to term".
The possession for the Indian estikeños of its old territories was recognized them in the document that was signed October of 1597, 28 by don Luis of Velasco, Marquis of Salinas, new viceroy from Peru.
Already entrance the Colony, Tarata was an indigenous important center, as they show it its beautiful churches. The foundation of the original town dates of January 3 of 1741.
CHURCHES AND CHAPELS DE TARATA
The san temple Benedicto Abbot, boss of the city of Tarata, began to be built starting from the year 1611, it was inaugurated January 3 officially of 1741. The churches and chapels of the county of Tarata are testimonies, of the Catholic centennial and deep faith of their town, but they are also monuments that represent two fundamental momentous historical processes for the formation of the Peruvian nation, just as we know it today :
to) The Evangelism: This process implied the conversion from the natives to the Christian fé. Already May of 1493, 4 Pope Alejandro VI had commended the spiritual care of the inhabitants from the New World to Reyes Catholics. Pope Julio II, for the Bull Universalis Eclesiae of July of 1508, 18 established the Patronage Latin American in favor of Reyes from Spain that granted to them, and to its viceroys, the right of presenting candidates to all the ecclesiastical positions. The evangelism began in the first moments of the Colony. In her they participated, religious celebrated orders as Dominícos, arrived in Peru in 1532. Mercedarios, arrived in Peru in 1533. The Franciscans, arrived in Peru in 1534. The Augustinian ones, arrived in Peru in 1551 and Jesuítas, arrived in Peru in 1568. These orders were given to the colossal work of evangelizing the natives. For it, churches and chapels were erected by all the Andes, as much in the mountain as in the coast. The first Bishopric of Peru and of South America, it was that of Cusco, created by Real Identification December 8 of 1535. The Bishopric of Lima was created by Pope Paulo III, February 11 of 1546. The Bishopric of Arequipa, it was created toward 1577, of him Tacna depended. This Bishopric, as the other ones, was divided in parishes and rectories, of Spaniards and Indians. The evangelism had two stages, the first were among the natives from Andes. The second, among the natives of Amazonía. In this last Jesuítas and the territory of their performance stood out I call you Maynas and he/she understood all that that nowadays is the department of Loreto. The Franciscans had like mark of their performance what today is the departments of Ukayali, Huánuco, Pasco and Junín.
b) The Extirpation of idolatries: At the end of the XVI century, after decades of Hispanic domain, the ecclesiastical authorities realized that the natives had not forgotten to their old gods and that they followed them adoring, following their old rites and customs, at the same time that they faked to be Christian or that being it, they also practiced their old beliefs. Before that situation that meant the failure of the efforts to achieve the indigenous conversion, the called process of "Extirpation of Idolatries" began that is to say, the liquidation of the Andean religion, to which they called Idolatry. Drastic punishments were applied the Andean priests that went from the flagelamiento to the prison or the exile in Chile. The practicing natives were also punished. They were looked for and they destroyed all the Wak'as or sanctuaries systematically, planting in their place the cross. What constitutes the origin of the crosses in the hills and other places. The indigenous baptisms or Rutuchikuy (that pervive partially with the "cortapelo" name) were prohibited. The indigenous names were prohibited that were obligatorily substituted by saints' names, passing the indigenous names, to be last names. He/she put under an obligation to the natives to the attendance controlled to mass. He/she took care of baptizing, to confirm and to marry to the natives obligatorily. The process lasted until well entered the XVII century and he/she was quite successful.
In the first years of the XIX century, Tarata would enter for all the high one to the history of Peru, because it was here, of where hundred of Indian tarateños, under the valiant cacique's control Kopaja, went toward Tacna to support eminent Francisco of Zela in its rising against the Hispanic domain. The help indigenous tarateña was decisive and Zela achieved its made. At the same time, the Argentinean army that fought beside Titiqaqa against the realistic Peruvian army, and with whose help the revolutionaries counted, it was defeated. Being the revolutionaries liberated to their luck and being the violently flat revolution. The leaders paid with their life and freedom. That revolution precursor gave reason so that years later, the Peruvian nascent republic gave to Tacna, the one titles of heroic" "city and to Zela, he/she is recognized as precursor of the independence of Peru. Having fallen regrettably in the forgetfulness, the cacique's geste Kopaja and their brave ones and the unquestionable contribution of Tarata, to the freedom of Peru.
Already during the Republic, Bolívar decrees in 1824, the political creation of the district of Tarata. Promulgating later decades, the president don Brown Manuel, the creation of the county of Tarata, November 12 of 1874. Being pointed out then, as their districts to: Estike, Tarukachi, Tarata, Tikako and Kandarave. When becoming he/she doesn't make a lot, Candarave in county, incorporated as districts: Chukatamani, Sitajara and Susapaya, being divided Estike in Estique Town (old and original town) and Estike Pampas.
THE CHILEAN OCCUPATION
After the defeat in the Field of the Alliance, the Peruvian army was refolded toward the North and the Bolivian, he/she retired definitively toward its homeland. He/she would begin then, an extremely hard passage in the history of Tacna: the Chilean occupation. After the outrages and crimes made against the civil population after the battle, he/she began the Chilean occupation officially. While the war continued its development in the North of Peru, the tacneños didn't resign to its luck. A colonel of the army, don Gregorio Albarracín and a Cuban called brave Juan Luis Pacheco of Grass, they headed the resistance to the invader and they made it from the county free of Tarata, specifically from the town of Chukatamani that today takes with pride the name "Heroes Albarracín - Chukatamani." So much Albarracín, as Pacheco of Grass, next to their brave, they ended up transforming into a headache for the invaders, sometimes putting even them in check during their incursions in the proximities of the city of Tacna. It motivated it that the Chileans outline a definitive action against Albarracín and Pacheco in their base of Chukatamani, falling Albarracín in one guarded next to their son and some loyalists in having broken Saucini where they were immolated fighting until the end, in the proximities of the town of Chukatamani, place where they have been erected a modest monument.
That was the reason for the one which, the whole county of Tarata was incorporate to the Peruvian territory occupied by the Chileans that he/she understood until then only the county of Tacna and its port of Arica. In Tarata, the same as in Tacna, the Chileans began their "chilenización" politics, for which the residents should give up their Peruvian nationality and to adopt the Chilean, should also abandon, all own habit adopting the Chileans. It was prohibited this way, the kuka consumption, pisco, the use of lights in the houses during the night (for what the tarateños should put a basket above the lamp) and also, the traditional parties. The tarateños that remained in their great majority faithful to Peru, they began soon to be murdered or missing, without one knows more than them. Many men lived to bush jump, hidden among the floresta.
The Chileans built a series of you redye, from where they controlled the traffic of people. These redye they are known to also be, place where they found their end many tarateños, for the only crime of staying loyal to Peru. This practice continued, not only at the end of the XIX century, but even during principles of the XX century, because as it is known, the Chilean brutal repression exercised against the Peruvians of the high-Andean areas of the counties of Tarata and Tacna, originated that many had to escape to save the life, not only individually, but sometimes even, whole towns, as the incident acquaintance of Challaviento, in which an entire town had to escape to survive of the brutal repression, after killing a Chilean ferocious customs officer for its abuses. This mobilization of whole towns was also given in the county of Tarata and it you can appreciate in the district of Chukatamani, where in whose capital, located in the left margin of the river Sama you can appreciate in the opposed margin, a town ghost, built by the inhabitants of Chukatamani during the occupation and to where they moved mass, when becoming the river Sama, the new frontier among free Peru and Peru occupied by the Chileans and of which they sought to seize definitively and to which tried already, like part of Chile.
When moving to the margin right, the inhabitants of Chukatamani, assumed a life full with hardships and difficulties, because the margin right was abrupt, poor in agricultural and lacking lands of roads that those people had to build, throughout decades, from the district free of Tikako (in the heights) throughout the narrow gulch of the river Sama. This important work, for that had an accident and abrupt of the ravine in the one that was built, it constitutes today, a monument to the dignity and the value of a town that never abandoned in front of the ferocious invader's oppression and that he/she decided self-employed and liberated to their luck to resist against all hope, the "chilenización" politics, what served to the long one so that Peru, it could recover Tarata and Tacna, moving away this way the enemy of the highland and of the lacustrine source of Titiqaqa that had constituted without a doubt of having been able to subject to the tarateños, their geopolitical next objective.
THE REINCORPORATION TO THE HOMELAND
The delivery of Tarata to Peru, took place during the president's don government Augusto B. Leguía, the day 1 of September of 1925. It represented Peru, in that occasion, don Manuel of Freyre Santander. The population tarateña, jubilant, espectó the ceremony and the izamiento of the national pavilion, to the they are of the marches that he/she interpreted the band of music of the regiment Hussar of Junín that paraded around the square of weapons.
The party of the 1 of September transformed from then on, in the civil most important party for Tarata. He/she takes place with devotion, but where an indescribable respect is appreciated, it is in the high-Andean part of Tarata, where the population toasts ritually with Ch'alla in honor to the Peruvian flag, carrying out him/her Wilanchas in which you/they sacrifice him/her livestock.
Page created web March 30 of the one 2005.
© Copyright 2005 Gualberto Valderrama C.